Ralph DeFronzo

Learn More
OBJECTIVE Several methods have been proposed to evaluate insulin sensitivity from the data obtained from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, the validity of these indices has not been rigorously evaluated by comparing them with the direct measurement of insulin sensitivity obtained with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. In this study, we(More)
Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a priming infusion of glucose. The desired(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. In high-risk subjects, the earliest detectable abnormality is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Impaired insulin-mediated signaling, gene expression, glycogen synthesis, and accumulation of intramyocellular triglycerides have all been linked with(More)
Diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension, and a wealth of epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension is hyperinsulinemia. Thus, when hypertensive patients, whether obese or of normal body weight,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycemic control with maximally effective metformin doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study at 82 U.S. sites was performed with 336 randomized(More)
The broad nature of insulin resistant glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes suggests a defect in the proximal part of the insulin signaling network. We sought to identify the pathways compromised in insulin resistance and to test the effect of moderate exercise on whole-body and cellular insulin action. We conducted(More)
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) results from an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the earliest detectable abnormality in NIDDM is an impairment in the body's ability to respond to insulin. Because the pancreas is able to appropriately augment its(More)
T ype 2 diabetes is now epidemic. In the U.S., there has been a 61% increase in incidence between 1990 and 2001 (1). There are currently 1.5 million new cases per year, and the prevalence in 2005 was almost 21 million (2). The epidemic has affected developed and developing countries alike, and the worldwide prevalence of diabetes is projected to increase(More)