Ralph D. Semmel

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Significant effort is expended in developing a high-level conceptual schema for a relational database. However, criticalknowledge is often discarded when the conceptual schema is mapped to aset of relation schemas. As a result, designers and users must employsparser logical-level knowledge to access data. Unfortunately, naiveusers do not possess the(More)
Expert systems are providing a means of solving complex problems that previously defied automation efforts. This paper explains what an expert system is and how one operates. Following a brief description of expert systems, the nature of computer problem-solving and the role of knowledge in that activity are discussed. A typical expert system architecture(More)