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This paper describes a model for investigating the efficacy of different methods of alleviating the pain of intra-oral injections. The efficacies of the topical anaesthetic EMLA cream and electronic nerve stimulation as means of reducing the discomfort of palatal injections prior to the extraction of maxillary teeth were investigated using the model in one(More)
The supply chain coordinating role of revenue-sharing has, to date, been examined only in static models. With downstream competition, the central conclusion in these models is negative: revenue-sharing cannot, except in degenerate form, achieve coordination. Incorporating dynamics, by allowing inventory carryover in discrete time, this paper establishes a(More)
When do participants in a market have the incentive to enter into agreements that exclude potential entrants? This paper synthesizes, extends and illustrates the theory of exclusionary contracts. In a model of incumbent contracts with downstream buyers, a " Chicago benchmark " yields no incentive for exclusionary long term contracts. Departures from the(More)
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