Ralph A. Nelson

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The adaptation of black and polar bears to their environments is proportional to the severity of climate and food restriction. Both black and polar bears mate during the spring, despite differences in their recent metabolic state. Reproductive activity in black bears follows 4 mo of torpor, whereas reproduction in polar bears occurs prior to torpor. The(More)
NELSON, RALPH A., HEINZ W. WAHNER, JAMES D. JONES, RALPH D. ELLEFSON, AND PAUL E. ZOLLMAN. Metabolism of bears before, during, and after winter sleep. Am. J. Physiol. 224(Z) : 491-496. 1973.-Three bears were studied before, during, and after winter sleep. The study lasted 97 days in the 1st year and 102 days in the 2nd year. None of the bears received food(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. OBJECTIVES The aim of this review is to establish the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to identify the most effective antibiotic treatment for CDAD in adults and to determine the need(More)
This study examined the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on GH and PRL responses and on energy substrate utilization during prolonged submaximal exercise in moderately active women (21-30 yr). Eight women taking OC (OC) and eight women with normal menstrual cycles (C) performed a standardized treadmill test of 90 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood(More)
Human growth hormone (hGH) levels were measured during rest, prolonged treadmill exercise at 60% maximum O2 uptake (VO2max), and immediate recovery in four groups of subjects (n = 7/group), ages 21-30 yr, classified as male runners (MR), female runners (FR), male controls (MC), and female controls (FC) to determine whether sex differences in the hGH(More)
There is a need for simple, quantitative and prospective assays for islet quality assessment that are predictive of islet transplantation outcome. The current state-of-the-art athymic nude mouse bioassay is costly, technically challenging and retrospective. In this study, we report on the ability of 2 parameters characterizing human islet quality: (1)(More)
Testicular recrudescence in male black bears (Ursus americanus) is initiated in January and completed in May. The goals of this study in the black bear were to determine 1) if testicular abundance of LH-receptor (LHr), FSH-receptor (FSHr), and prolactin-receptor (PRLr) mRNA changes during recrudescence; 2) if these changes in mRNA abundance are associated(More)
CONTEXT A number of therapies have been proposed for the long-term management of corticosteroid-responsive, rapidly progressive, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (autoimmune inner ear disease [AIED]). Methotrexate has emerged as the benchmark agent but has not been rigorously evaluated for hearing improvement in patients with AIED. OBJECTIVE To assess(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which growth hormone (GH) and energy substrate utilization are influenced by basal sex steroid levels during prolonged submaximal exercise across menstrual phase and status. Also the 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone responses during prolonged exercise were compared according to menstrual phase(More)