Ralph A DeFronzo

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OBJECTIVE Several methods have been proposed to evaluate insulin sensitivity from the data obtained from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, the validity of these indices has not been rigorously evaluated by comparing them with the direct measurement of insulin sensitivity obtained with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. In this study, we(More)
Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a priming infusion of glucose. The desired(More)
Diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension, and a wealth of epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension is hyperinsulinemia. Thus, when hypertensive patients, whether obese or of normal body weight,(More)
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) results from an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the earliest detectable abnormality in NIDDM is an impairment in the body's ability to respond to insulin. Because the pancreas is able to appropriately augment its(More)
The broad nature of insulin resistant glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes suggests a defect in the proximal part of the insulin signaling network. We sought to identify the pathways compromised in insulin resistance and to test the effect of moderate exercise on whole-body and cellular insulin action. We conducted(More)
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are intermediate states in glucose metabolism that exist between normal glucose tolerance and overt diabetes. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that the two categories describe distinct populations with only partial overlap, suggesting that different metabolic abnormalities characterize(More)
Insulin resistance in muscle and liver and -cell failure represent the core pathophysiologic defects in type 2 diabetes. It now is recognized that the -cell failure occurs much earlier and is more severe than previously thought. Subjects in the upper tertile of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are maximally/nearmaximally insulin resistant and have lost over(More)
This study was conducted to observe changes in insulin secretion and insulin action in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of 319 subjects were studied with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and every 30 min during the(More)