Ralf Schumann

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Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae, purified employing a chloroform/methanol protocol, and from Staphylococcus aureus, prepared by the recently described butanol extraction procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2.(More)
The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with(More)
TLRs constitute an essential family of pattern recognition molecules that, through direct recognition of conserved microbial components, initiate inflammatory responses following infection. In this role, TLR1 enables host responses to a variety of bacteria, including pathogenic species of mycobacteria. In this study, we report that I602S, a common single(More)
Genetic host factors play a substantial role in susceptibility to and severity of malaria, which continues to cause at least one million deaths per year. Recently, members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family have been shown to be involved in recognition of the etiologic organism Plasmodium falciparum: The glycosylphosphatidylinisitol anchor induces(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important part in the innate immune recognition of invading microorganisms, initiating sufficient immune responses. Growing amounts of data suggest that the ability of certain individuals to respond properly to TLR ligands may be impaired by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TLR genes, resulting in an altered(More)
BACKGROUND In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology. AIM To unravel the molecular mechanisms by which commensal E coli exacerbate ileitis. METHODS Ileitis was(More)
BACKGROUND Immune activation in patients with chronic heart failure may be secondary to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) action. We investigated the hypothesis that altered gut permeability with bacterial translocation and endotoxaemia would be increased in patients with oedema secondary to congestive heart failure. METHODS We compared 20 patients who had(More)
Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from(More)
Exposure of macrophages to LPS induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulation with LPS termed LPS desensitization or tolerance. To date, it is not known whether similar mechanisms of macrophage refractoriness are induced on contact with components of Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we demonstrate that pretreatment with highly(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, the major cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, has been shown to transiently invade epithelial and endothelial cells. Innate immune receptors including Toll-like receptors recognize various pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae, by identifying conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Recently, two(More)