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Recently, much attention has been focused on insecticides as a group of chemicals combining high toxicity to invertebrates and fishes with low application rates, which complicates detection in the field. Assessment of these chemicals is greatly facilitated by the description and understanding of exposure, resulting biological effects, and risk mitigation(More)
The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an(More)
An analytical method was developed for the determination of nine antiviral drugs (acyclovir, abacavir, lamivudine, nevirapine oseltamivir, penciclovir, ribavirin, stavudine, zidovudine) and one active metabolite (oseltamivir carboxylate) in raw and treated wastewater as well as in surface water using LC/ESI tandem MS detection. Relative recoveries exceeded(More)
Rainfall-induced runoff transported sediments and pesticides into the Lourens River and its tributaries during a 28.8-mm rainstorm in mid-December 1998. Average 1-h peak levels of current-use insecticides applied to adjacent orchard plots were 1.5 micrograms l-1 azinphos-methyl, 0.2 microgram l-1 chlorpyrifos and 2.9 micrograms l-1 total endosulfan (alpha,(More)
Drainage ditches are indispensable components of the agricultural production landscape. A benefit of these ditches is contaminant mitigation of agricultural storm runoff. This study determined bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (two pyrethroid insecticides) partitioning and retention in ditch water, sediment, and plant material as well as estimated necessary(More)
Constructed wetlands have been widely used to control both point- and nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. However, our knowledge about their effectiveness in retaining agricultural pesticide pollution is limited. A 0.44-ha vegetated wetland built along a tributary of the Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, was studied to ascertain retention(More)
We compiled data from eight field studies conducted between 1998 and 2010 in Europe, Siberia, and Australia to derive thresholds for the effects of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities and the ecosystem function leaf breakdown. Dose-response models for the relationship of pesticide toxicity with the abundance of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa(More)
The use of vitellogenesis as a marker for possible effects of endocrine disrupting agents on insects was tested in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. As test substances the synthetic ecdysoid tebufenozide, and the endocrine disruptors bisphenol a and 4-n-nonylphenol were applied in a semi-static manner. The yolk protein contents of freshly emerged (24(More)
The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of(More)
Larvae of the caddisfly Limnephilus lunatus Curtis were exposed to the pyrethroid fenvalerate for one hour and transferred to artificial outdoor stream systems, where their survival rate and emergence were monitored over 84 days. Lethal effects of the pyrethroid almost always appeared shortly after the short-term contamination, but chronic influences were(More)