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BACKGROUND Left cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) using the implanted NeuroCybernetic Prosthesis (NCP) can reduce epileptic seizures and has recently been shown to give promising results for treating therapy-resistant depression. To address a disadvantage of this state-of-the-art VNS device, the use of an alternative transcutaneous electrical nerve(More)
The origin of afferent connections of the hypoglossal nucleus in rats was investigated using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a retrograde tracer. Pressure injections (0.15-0.17 mu1) of 15% HRP were introduced into the rostral, middle and caudal portions of the nucleus. Projections to the hypoglossal nucleus originated from 3 regions of the brainstem: the(More)
The contribution of four cortical areas (S1, S2, insular cortex and gyrus cinguli) to pain processing was assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Phasic (mechanical impact) and tonic stimuli (squeezing) were applied to the back of a finger, both at two different strengths. Stimuli were adjusted to inflict weak and strong pain sensations.(More)
C-nociceptors mediating cutaneous pain in humans can be distinguished in mechano-heat-responsive units (CMH) and mechano-insensitive units (CMi). However, if sensitized in damaged tissue, CMi play an important role in inflammatory pain. CMi differ from CMH by higher electrical thresholds and by mediating the axon reflex. Using these properties, we(More)
Cortical processing of electrically induced pain from the tooth pulp was studied in healthy volunteers with fMRI. In a first experiment, cortical representation of tooth pain was compared with that of painful mechanical stimulation to the hand. The contralateral S1 cortex was activated during painful mechanical stimulation of the hand, whereas tooth pain(More)
One of the most distressing symptoms of many neuropathic pain syndromes is the enhanced pain sensation to tactile or thermal stimulation (hyperalgesia). In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and explored brain activation patterns during acute impact pain and mechanical hyperalgesia in the human ultraviolet (UV)-B model.(More)
BACKGROUND Anorectal continence depends not only on the organs of continence but also on cerebral control. There are relatively few data regarding cerebral processing of anorectal continence. METHODS Thirteen healthy subjects underwent rectal distension to cause urge increasing to discomfort during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about changes in brain activity with pharmacological modulation of hyperalgesia. Therefore, we sought to investigate the cerebral processing of hyperalgesia and acute pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pharmacological modulation with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. METHODS As an experimental model, we(More)
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