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The Arabidopsis thaliana NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1, also known as NIM1) protein is an essential positive regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-induced PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) gene expression and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). PR gene activity is regulated at the level of redox-dependent nuclear transport of NPR1. NPR1 interacts with members of the(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa about 4 million HIV-infected patients had started antiretroviral therapy (ART) by the end of 2008. Loss of patients to follow-up and care is an important problem for treatment programmes in this region. As mortality is high in these patients compared to patients remaining in care,(More)
The plant signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and/or xenobiotic chemicals like the auxin mimic 2,4-D induce transcriptional activation of defense- and stress-related genes that contain activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like cis-elements in their promoters. as-1-like sequences are recognized by basic/leucine zipper transcription factors of the TGA family.(More)
BACKGROUND Smear-positive pulmonary TB is the most infectious form of TB. Previous studies on the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on TB treatment outcomes among these highly infectious patients demonstrated conflicting results, reducing understanding of important issues. METHODS All adult smear-positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed between(More)
OBJECT The authors studied the long-term efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus up to 2 years postoperatively in patients with primary non-DYT1 generalized dystonia or choreoathetosis. The results are briefly compared with those reported for DBS in DYT1 dystonia (Oppenheim dystonia), which is caused(More)
The center median-parafascicular (CM-Pf) complex, which constitutes the major portion of the intralaminar thalamus in man, has long been known to be involved in the processing of pain under normal and pathological conditions. Yet, these 'forgotten' nuclei with their rich connectivity to other thalamic nuclei, the basal ganglia and cortical areas have(More)
Fourteen consecutive patients with segmental dystonia underwent chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in the frame of a prospective study protocol. Twelve patients received chronic pallidal stimulation, while 2 patients with prominent dystonic tremor received chronic thalamic ventrointermediate nucleus stimulation. Twelve patients had primary(More)
The aim of the study was to determine the source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hematoma fluid of patients suffering from chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) and to identify the level of gene expression of the pro-angiogenic factors angiopoietin 1 (ANG-1) and ANG-2 in hematoma membranes. Samples of venous blood, hematoma fluid, and outer(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality in HIV-infected patients who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has declined in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is unclear how mortality compares to the non-HIV-infected population. We compared mortality rates observed in HIV-1-infected patients starting ART with non-HIV-related background mortality in four countries(More)