Ralf Réné Reinert

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OBJECTIVES The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008. METHODS Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data. RESULTS Before(More)
The past 2 decades have brought worrying increases in severe Streptococcus pyogenes diseases globally. To investigate and compare the epidemiological patterns of these diseases within Europe, data were collected through a European Union FP-5-funded program (Strep-EURO). Prospective population-based surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection diagnosed(More)
The prevalence of resistance to a range of antimicrobials was determined for isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae examined in the PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin) surveillance study (1999-2000) using NCCLS testing methods and interpretative criteria. Of 3362 pneumococcal isolates collected(More)
Susceptibility testing results for Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n = 2,279) from eight European countries, examined in the PneumoWorld Study from 2001 to 2003, are presented. Overall, 24.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin G and 28.0% were resistant to macrolides. The prevalence of resistance varied widely between European(More)
The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is a global antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance study which has been ongoing since 2004. This report examines the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against clinically important pathogens collected globally between 2004 and 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using(More)
The surface-associated subtilisin-like serine protease PrtA was identified by screening a genomic expression library from Streptococcus pneumoniae using a convalescent-phase serum. In Western blot analysis two forms of PrtA were detected in whole cell lysate and a truncated form only in culture supernatant suggesting that PrtA is produced as a precursor(More)
In a nationwide study in Germany covering 13 clinical microbiology laboratories, a total of 307 Streptococcus pyogenes (mainly pharyngitis) and 333 Streptococcus pneumoniae (respiratory tract infections) strains were collected from outpatients less than 16 years of age. The MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin A, clindamycin,(More)
General vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was recommended in Germany in July 2006 for all children <2 years. The proportion of reported invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes before vaccine introduction was considerably lower than in the US. We report data from nationwide surveillance of IPD in children(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the susceptibility of bacterial respiratory tract pathogens, isolated from children (0-12 years) as part of the global PROTEKT surveillance study (1999-2000), to a range of antibacterials, including the ketolide telithromycin. METHODS Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibacterials studied were determined at a central(More)