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Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role for the survival of visceral sensory neurons during development. However, the physiological sources and the function of BDNF in the adult viscera are poorly described. We have investigated the cellular sources and the potential role of BDNF in adult murine viscera. We found markedly different(More)
The presence of melanin in spleens of black C57BL/6 mice has been known for long. Although its origin and biological functions are still obscure, the relation of splenic melanin to the hair follicle and skin pigmentation was suggested. Here, we demonstrated using for the first time electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy that black-spotted C57BL/6(More)
BACKGROUND The skin is responsible for forming a variety of epidermal structures that differ amongst vertebrates. In each case the specific structure (for example scale, feather or hair) arises from an epidermal placode as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions with the underlying dermal mesenchyme. Expression of members of the Wnt, Hedgehog and(More)
The skin and its major appendages are prominent target organs and potent sources of key players along the classical hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and even express key steroidogenic enzymes. Therefore, it may have(More)
The skin offers an ideally suited, clinically relevant model for studying the crossroads between peripheral and systemic responses to stress. A 'brain-skin connection' with local neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry underlies the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, triggered or aggravated by stress. In stressed mice, corticotropin-releasing(More)
Human skin expresses elements of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), the CRH receptor-1 (CRH-R1), key enzymes of corticosteroid synthesis and synthesizes glucocorticoids. Expression of these elements is organized in functional, cell type-specific regulatory loops, which(More)
Keratinocytes (KC) are important source of and targets for several cytokines. Although KC express IL-15 mRNA, the functional effects of IL-15 on these epithelial cells remain to be dissected. Investigating primary human foreskin KC and HaCaT cells, we show here by semiquantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis that both translate IL-15 and IL-15R mRNA(More)
The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease. Recent studies have intriguingly(More)
Emerging research indicates that central-nervous stress perception is translated to peripheral tissues such as the skin not only via classical stress hormones but also via neurotrophins and neuropeptides. This can result in neurogenic inflammation, which is likely to contribute to the triggering and/aggravation of immunodermatoses. Although the existence of(More)