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Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the(More)
Nearly 50 years ago, Chase published a review of hair cycling in which he detailed hair growth in the mouse and integrated hair biology with the biology of his day. In this review we have used Chase as our model and tried to put the adult hair follicle growth cycle in perspective. We have tried to sketch the adult hair follicle cycle, as we know it today(More)
BACKGROUND The skin is responsible for forming a variety of epidermal structures that differ amongst vertebrates. In each case the specific structure (for example scale, feather or hair) arises from an epidermal placode as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions with the underlying dermal mesenchyme. Expression of members of the Wnt, Hedgehog and(More)
The skin is a known target organ for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), beta-endorphin, and ACTH and also a source of these peptides. Skin expression levels of the POMC gene and POMC/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) peptides are not static but are determined by such factors as the(More)
Hair follicle (HF) development is the result of neuroectodermal-mesodermal interactions, and can be divided into morphologically distinguishable stages (induction, organogenesis and cytodifferentiation). The spacing, polarity and differentiation patterns of HFs are driven by interacting, self-assembling gradients of inhibitors and activators, which are(More)
Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies(More)
The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling,(More)
Hair follicle development serves as an excellent model to study control of organ morphogenesis. Three specific isoforms of TGF-beta exist which exhibit a distinct pattern of expression during hair follicle morphogenesis. To clarify the still elusive role of these factors in hair follicle development, we have used a combined genetic and functional approach:(More)
Numerous spontaneous and experimentally induced mouse mutations develop a hair phenotype, which is often associated with more or less discrete abnormalities in hair follicle development. In order to recognize these, it is critically important to be able to determine and to classify accurately the major stages of normal murine hair follicle morphogenesis. As(More)