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Recent discoveries suggest that a novel second messenger, bis-(3'-->5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-diGMP), is extensively used by bacteria to control multicellular behavior. Condensation of two GTP to the dinucleotide is catalyzed by the widely distributed diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF) domain that occurs in various combinations with sensory and/or regulatory(More)
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate is a bacterial second messenger that has been implicated in biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in their animal host. Although the enzymes responsible for the regulation of cellular levels of c-di-GMP, diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases, have been identified(More)
The two-component phosphorylation network is of critical importance for bacterial growth and physiology. Here, we address plasticity and interconnection of distinct signal transduction pathways within this network. In Caulobacter crescentus antagonistic activities of the PleC phosphatase and DivJ kinase localized at opposite cell poles control the(More)
Pole development is coordinated with the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle by two-component signaling proteins. We show that an unusual response regulator, PleD, is required for polar differentiation and is sequestered to the cell pole only when it is activated by phosphorylation. Dynamic localization of PleD to the cell pole provides a mechanism to(More)
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger involved in the regulation of cell surface-associated traits and persistence. We have determined the crystal structure of PleD from Caulobacter crescentus, a response regulator with a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) domain, in its activated form. The BeF(3)(-) modification of(More)
Several members of the two-component signal transduction family have been implicated in the control of polar development in Caulobacter crescentus: PleC and DivJ, two polarly localized histidine sensor kinases; and the response regulators DivK and PleD. The PleD protein was shown previously to be required during the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition for(More)
Diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) are key enzymes of second messenger signaling in bacteria. Their activity is responsible for the condensation of two GTP molecules into the signaling compound cyclic di-GMP. Despite their importance and abundance in bacteria, catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of this class of enzymes are poorly understood. In particular, it is(More)
The redox protein flavodoxin has been shown earlier to be reduced by the pyruvate-oxidoreductase (POR) enzyme complex of Helicobacter pylori, and also was proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Here, we report its X-ray structure, which is similar to flavodoxins of other bacteria and(More)
The large scale screening of cytokine mutants is a component of binding and activity mapping and requires an efficient method of cytokine protein expression. Here, we compared recombinant IL-7 expression with and purification from Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The IL-7 cytokine contains three disulfide bonds that are essential for its biological(More)