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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows measurement of neurotransmitter concentrations within a region of interest in the brain. Inter-individual variation in MRS-measured GABA levels have been related to variation in task performance in a number of regions. However, it is not clear how MRS-assessed measures of GABA relate to cortical excitability or(More)
Recently, the spin-echo full-intensity acquired localized (SPECIAL) spectroscopy technique was proposed to unite the advantages of short TEs on the order of milliseconds (ms) with full sensitivity and applied to in vivo rat brain. In the present study, SPECIAL was adapted and optimized for use on a clinical platform at 3T and 7T by combining interleaved(More)
Short-TE MRS has been proposed recently as a method for the in vivo detection and quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain at 3 T. In this study, we investigated the accuracy and reproducibility of short-TE MRS measurements of GABA at 3 T using both simulations and experiments. LCModel analysis was performed on a large number of(More)
After the landmark studies reporting changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc ) in excess of those in oxygen (CMRO2 ) during physiological stimulation, several studies have examined the fate of the extra carbon taken up by the brain, reporting a wide range of changes in brain lactate from 20% to 250%. The present study reports functional(More)
INTRODUCTION For three-dimensional (3D) imaging with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the cerebral and cervical circulation, both a high temporal and a high spatial resolution with isovolumetric datasets are of interest. In an initial evaluation, we analyzed the potential of contrast-enhanced (CE) time-resolved 3D-MRA as an adjunct for neurovascular(More)
Schizophrenia pathophysiology implies both abnormal redox control and dysconnectivity of the prefrontal cortex, partly related to oligodendrocyte and myelin impairments. As oligodendrocytes are highly vulnerable to altered redox state, we investigated the interplay between glutathione and myelin. In control subjects, multimodal brain imaging revealed a(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a transverse electromagnetic (TEM), a circularly polarized (CP) (birdcage), and a 12-channel phased array head coil at the clinical field strength of B0 = 3T in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal homogeneity, and maps of the effective flip angle alpha. MATERIALS AND METHODS SNR measurements were performed on low flip angle(More)
1 H spectra from human volunteers acquired with an optimized SPECIAL acquisition scheme using a quadrature surface coil. 64 scans. Data processing consisted of zero-filling up to 16-k data points, shifted Gaussian weighting of the FID, Fourier transformation, and phase correction. Right: Corresponding fitted curves using LCModel. Note the excellent(More)
INTRODUCTION Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent imaging modality for soft tissues. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is an MRI technique that is sensitive to the bound protons of macromolecules and therefore can aid in the assessment of nerve damage. METHODS Measurements of the MT ratio (MTR), which provides an index of the MT effects in(More)
Detection of active areas in the brain by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging problem in medical imaging. Moreover, determining the onset and end of activation signals at specific locations in 3-space can determine networks of temporal relationships required for brain mapping. We introduce a method for activation detection in fMRI(More)