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The continuum mechanical treatment of biological growth and remodeling has attracted considerable attention over the past fifteen years. Many aspects of these problems are now well-understood, yet there remain areas in need of significant development from the standpoint of experiments, theory, and computation. In this perspective paper we review the state(More)
BACKGROUND Cells sense the extracellular environment using adhesion receptors (integrins) linked to the intracellular actin cytoskeleton through a complex network of regulatory proteins that, all together, form focal adhesions (FAs). The molecular basis of how these sensing units are regulated, how they are implicated in transducing mechanical stimuli, and(More)
Cell migration is a fundamental feature of the interaction of cells with their surrounding. The cell's stiffness and ability to deform itself are two major characteristics that rule migration behavior especially in three-dimensional tissue. We simulate this situation making use of a micro-fabricated migration chip to test the active invasive behavior of(More)
Here we show that glioblastoma express high levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), the enzyme that initiates the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Expression of BCAT1 was exclusive to tumors carrying wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes and was highly correlated with methylation patterns in the(More)
Cells adherent on a cyclically stretched substrate with a periodically varying uniaxial strain are known to dynamically reorient nearly perpendicular to the strain direction. We investigate the dynamic reorientation of rat embryonic and human fibroblast cells over a range of stretching frequency from 0.0001 to 20 s(-1) and strain amplitude from 1% to 15%.(More)
In human diseases related to tumor-suppressor genes, it is suggested that only the complete loss of the protein results in specific symptoms such as tumor formation, whereas simple reduction of protein quantity to 50%, called haploinsufficiency, essentially does not affect cellular behavior. Using a model of gene expression, it was presumed that(More)
We herein present a novel platform of well-controlled ordered and disordered nanopatterns positioned with a cyclic peptide of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) on a bioinert poly(ethylene glycol) background, to study whether the nanoscopic order of spatial patterning of the integrin-specific ligands influences osteoblast adhesion. This is the first time(More)
Cell adhesion, orientation and migration are influenced by surface topographies in the micrometer and nanometer range. In this work, we demonstrate the stimulation by topographical signals of human fibroblast cells (FCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We systematically quantified the contact guidance alignment and directed(More)
Cells have the ability to measure and respond to extracellular signals like chemical molecules and topographical surface features by changing their orientation. Here, we examined the orientation of cultured human melanocytes exposed to grooved topographies. To predict the cells' orientation response, we describe the cell behavior with an automatic(More)
Mechanical forces play a crucial role in controlling the integrity and functionality of cells and tissues. External forces are sensed by cells and translated into signals that induce various responses. To increase the detailed understanding of these processes, we investigated cell migration and dynamic cellular reorganisation of focal adhesions and(More)