Ralf K. Heilmann

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The Constellation-X mission will perform X-Ray science with improvements in energy resolution and effective area over its predecessor missions. The primary instrument on each of the four Constellation-X spacecraft is the Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope (SXT). The SXT is a 1.6m diameter grazing incidence mirror assembly comprised of approximately 4000 optic(More)
We report progress in using nanoimprint lithography to fabricate high fidelity blazed diffraction gratings. Anisotropically etched silicon gratings with 200 nm period and 7.5° blaze angle were successfully replicated onto 100 mm diameter wafers with subnanometer roughness and excellent profile conformity. Out-of-plane distortion induced by residual stress(More)
We report a process which integrates interference lithography, nanoimprint lithography, and anisotropic etching to fabricate replicated diffraction gratings with sawtooth profiles. This new process greatly reduces grating fabrication time and cost, while preserving the groove shape and smoothness. Relief gratings with 400 nm period inverted triangular(More)
We present a spectrometer design based on a novel nanofabricated blazed X-ray transmission grating which is modeled to have superior efficiency. Here we outline a full instrument design proposed for Constellation-X which is expected to give resolving powers ~2000 (HEW). The spectrometer advantages include lower mass budget and smaller diffractor area, as(More)
The analysis of many systems in optical communications and metrology utilizing Gaussian beams, such as free-space propagation from single-mode fibers, point diffraction interferometers, and interference lithography, would benefit from an accurate analytical model of Gaussian beam propagation. We present a full vector analysis of Gaussian beam propagation by(More)
Metrology is the science and engineering of measurement. It has played a crucial role in the industrial revolution at the milli-inch length scale and in the semiconductor revolution at the micrometre length scale. It is often proclaimed that we are standing at the threshold of another industrial revolution, brought by the advent and maturing of(More)
We are developing scanning beam interference lithography ~SBIL! for writing and reading large gratings with nanometer level distortion. Our distortion goals require fringe locking to a moving substrate with subnanometer spatial phase error while measuring and controlling the fringe period to approximately one part per million. In this article, we describe(More)
The authors present a breakthrough multistage dry-etch process to create 100 nm half-pitch gratings in silicon with depths up to 6 m. Interference lithography was used to pattern gratings in an optically matched stack of materials to form a 400-nm-thick silicon oxide hard-mask. The oxide was then used to mask the subsequent deep reactive-ion etching of(More)
Volume x-ray gratings consisting of a multilayer coating deposited on a blazed substrate can diffract with very high efficiency, even in high orders if diffraction conditions in-plane (grating) and out-of-plane (Bragg multilayer) are met simultaneously. This remarkable property, however, depends critically on the ability to create a structure with near(More)
The authors report on the fabrication of 200 nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator SOI wafers. These critical angle transmission CAT gratings require 3–5 m tall freestanding grating bars with a very high aspect ratio 100 and smooth sidewalls. In order to meet the challenging geometrical requirements, they modified and improved our(More)