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The use of vitellogenesis as a marker for possible effects of endocrine disrupting agents on insects was tested in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. As test substances the synthetic ecdysoid tebufenozide, and the endocrine disruptors bisphenol a and 4-n-nonylphenol were applied in a semi-static manner. The yolk protein contents of freshly emerged (24(More)
Recently, much attention has been focused on insecticides as a group of chemicals combining high toxicity to invertebrates and fishes with low application rates, which complicates detection in the field. Assessment of these chemicals is greatly facilitated by the description and understanding of exposure, resulting biological effects, and risk mitigation(More)
Acute effects of the endocrine disruptor bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) on molting-hormone biosynthesis and imaginal-disc development were investigated in larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen). Ecdysteroid synthesis was measured by 24-h incubation of molting-hormone-synthesizing tissues (prothoracic glands) in vitro with or without the addition(More)
An analytical method was developed for the determination of nine antiviral drugs (acyclovir, abacavir, lamivudine, nevirapine oseltamivir, penciclovir, ribavirin, stavudine, zidovudine) and one active metabolite (oseltamivir carboxylate) in raw and treated wastewater as well as in surface water using LC/ESI tandem MS detection. Relative recoveries exceeded(More)
Rainfall-induced runoff transported sediments and pesticides into the Lourens River and its tributaries during a 28.8-mm rainstorm in mid-December 1998. Average 1-h peak levels of current-use insecticides applied to adjacent orchard plots were 1.5 micrograms l-1 azinphos-methyl, 0.2 microgram l-1 chlorpyrifos and 2.9 micrograms l-1 total endosulfan (alpha,(More)
We compiled data from eight field studies conducted between 1998 and 2010 in Europe, Siberia, and Australia to derive thresholds for the effects of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities and the ecosystem function leaf breakdown. Dose-response models for the relationship of pesticide toxicity with the abundance of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa(More)
Constructed wetlands have been widely used to control both point- and nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. However, our knowledge about their effectiveness in retaining agricultural pesticide pollution is limited. A 0.44-ha vegetated wetland built along a tributary of the Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, was studied to ascertain retention(More)
Drainage ditches are indispensable components of the agricultural production landscape. A benefit of these ditches is contaminant mitigation of agricultural storm runoff. This study determined bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (two pyrethroid insecticides) partitioning and retention in ditch water, sediment, and plant material as well as estimated necessary(More)
The effects of the molting-hormone agonistic insecticide tebufenozide on larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen were tested in two different exposure setups. After static contamination of first-instar larvae the NOEC, LOEC, and LC50 values were 13.2, 17.4, and 21.14 microg/L, respectively. Semistatic exposure of fourth-instar larvae revealed a lower(More)
The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of(More)