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Recently, much attention has been focused on insecticides as a group of chemicals combining high toxicity to invertebrates and fishes with low application rates, which complicates detection in the field. Assessment of these chemicals is greatly facilitated by the description and understanding of exposure, resulting biological effects, and risk mitigation(More)
The use of vitellogenesis as a marker for possible effects of endocrine disrupting agents on insects was tested in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. As test substances the synthetic ecdysoid tebufenozide, and the endocrine disruptors bisphenol a and 4-n-nonylphenol were applied in a semi-static manner. The yolk protein contents of freshly emerged (24(More)
We compiled data from eight field studies conducted between 1998 and 2010 in Europe, Siberia, and Australia to derive thresholds for the effects of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities and the ecosystem function leaf breakdown. Dose-response models for the relationship of pesticide toxicity with the abundance of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa(More)
Acute effects of the endocrine disruptor bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) on molting-hormone biosynthesis and imaginal-disc development were investigated in larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen). Ecdysteroid synthesis was measured by 24-h incubation of molting-hormone-synthesizing tissues (prothoracic glands) in vitro with or without the addition(More)
Methyl parathion (MeP) was introduced into constructed wetlands for the purpose of assessing the influence of emergent vegetation on transport and toxicity of the pesticide. Two vegetated (90% cover, mainly Juncus effusus) and two nonvegetated wetland cells (each with a water body of 50 x 5.5 x 0.2 m) were each dosed with 6.5 m3 of water containing active(More)
Rainfall-induced runoff transported sediments and pesticides into the Lourens River and its tributaries during a 28.8-mm rainstorm in mid-December 1998. Average 1-h peak levels of current-use insecticides applied to adjacent orchard plots were 1.5 micrograms l-1 azinphos-methyl, 0.2 microgram l-1 chlorpyrifos and 2.9 micrograms l-1 total endosulfan (alpha,(More)
The effects of the molting-hormone agonistic insecticide tebufenozide on larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen were tested in two different exposure setups. After static contamination of first-instar larvae the NOEC, LOEC, and LC50 values were 13.2, 17.4, and 21.14 microg/L, respectively. Semistatic exposure of fourth-instar larvae revealed a lower(More)
The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of(More)
Episodic pollution events such as runoff or spraydrift can lead to a short-term (few hours) contamination of aquatic ecosystems with pesticides. So far, different short-term exposures with respect to long-term effects have not been studied. In the present study, caddisfly larvae, typical for agricultural streams (Limnephilus lunatus Curtis, 2nd and 3rd(More)
The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an(More)