Ralf H. Anken

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Research in microgravity is indispensable to disclose the impact of gravity on biological processes and organisms. However, research in the near-Earth orbit is severely constrained by the limited number of flight opportunities. Ground-based simulators of microgravity are valuable tools for preparing spaceflight experiments, but they also facilitate(More)
The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (or -dehydrogenase, NADPHDH, a marker for nitric oxide synthase, NOS) positive neurons was demonstrated histochemically in the central nervous system of the swordtail fish Xiphophorus helleri, a highly derived telost of the atherinomorph outgroup. All nuclei of the swordtail fish,(More)
1. The functional properties of biological membranes depend on their molecular composition. In regard to this, charged glycosphingolipids play an outstanding role in the functional adaptation of membranes to different temperatures. 2. In order to shed some light on the respective functional properties of complex membraneous glycosphingolipids, the effects(More)
Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and right sides) of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish were determined after a long-term stay in moderate hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge), in the course of which the animals completed their ontogenetic development from hatch to freely swimming. Neither the normal morphogenetic development(More)
Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In a search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonatal swordtail fish (Xiphophorus(More)
Larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were kept at hypergravity (hg; centrifuge) for 6 h. Following the transfer to 1 g (i.e. stopping the centrifuge), animals were separated into normally and abnormally (kinetotic) swimming individuals (the latter were swimming kinetotically, i.e. performing spinning movements). Subsequently, carbonic anhydrase-(More)
The amounts of calcium and strontium were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in saccular and utricular inner ear otoliths (sagittae and lapilli, respectively) of developing cichlid fish. These fish had been maintained for 22 days at 3-g hypergravity conditions within a centrifuge. During this time-span, the animals completed(More)
Larval siblings of cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were subjected to hypergravity (hg; 3 g, 14 days) during development. Following the transfer to 1 g (i.e., stopping the centrifuge) they were separated into normally and kinetotically swimming individuals (the latter performed spinning movements). During hg, the animals were maintained in aquarium(More)
By using conventional histological methods, the nuclear organization of the rostral diencephalon of the swordtail-fish, Xiphophorus helleri (Poecilidae, Atherinomorpha, Teleostei) was analyzed and compared with those from other teleost species. The subdivisions of the entopeduncular region, especially in their relative position and cytoarchitectonic(More)
This cytoarchitectonic analysis on the rostral diencephalon of antarctic perciform fishes confirms the previously established perciform diencephalic body plan. However, it resulted in the detection of an additional, large and conspicuous brain nucleus (unusual nucleus, UN) in the antarctic nototheniid Pleuragramma antarcticum. This nucleus has not been seen(More)