Learn More
Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels form extensive networks that are essential for the transport of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells within the large and complex bodies of vertebrates. Both of these vascular structures are lined with endothelial cells that integrate functionally into different organs, acquire tissue-specific specialization and retain(More)
We labeled axonal projections using carbocyanine dyes in the developing rat brain to study cellular interactions that might underlie the establishment of thalamocortical connectivity. By embryonic day 14 (E14), groups of neurons in the ventral diencephalon and the primitive internal capsule have established projections to the dorsal thalamus, and thalamic(More)
Chemical synapses contain specialized pre- and postsynaptic structures that regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. EphB receptor tyrosine kinases are important molecular components in this process. Previously, EphB receptors were shown to act postsynaptically, whereas their transmembrane ligands, the ephrinBs, were presumed to act presynaptically.(More)
The transmembrane ligand ephrinB2 and its cognate Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are important regulators of embryonic blood vascular morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms required for ephrinB2 transduced cellular signaling in vivo have not been characterized. To address this question, we generated two sets of knock-in mice: ephrinB2DeltaV mice(More)
Dysfunction of lymphatic valves underlies human lymphedema, yet the process of valve morphogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that during embryogenesis, lymphatic valve leaflet formation is initiated by upregulation of integrin-alpha9 expression and deposition of its ligand fibronectin-EIIIA (FN-EIIIA) in the extracellular matrix. Endothelial(More)
The semaphorins are a large group of cell surface and secreted proteins implicated in axonal pathfinding. Here we show that the secreted mouse semaphorin D (SemD) is synthesized as an inactive precursor (proSemD) and becomes repulsive for sensory and sympathetic neurites upon proteolytic cleavage. ProSemD processing can be blocked completely by an inhibitor(More)
The transmembrane ligand ephrinB2 and its cognate Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are important regulators of vascular morphogenesis. EphrinB2 may have an active signaling role, resulting in bi-directional signal transduction downstream of both ephrinB2 and Eph receptors. To separate the ligand and receptor-like functions of ephrinB2 in mice, we replaced the(More)
We report that targeted inactivation of the Eph receptor ligand ephrinB1 in mouse caused perinatal lethality, edema, defective body wall closure, and skeletal abnormalities. In the thorax, sternocostal connections were arranged asymmetrically and sternebrae were fused, defects that were phenocopied in EphB2/EphB3 receptor mutants. In the wrist, loss of(More)
In the mutant mouse reeler, the tangential distribution of thalamocortical fibers is essentially normal, even though neurons of the cortical plate accumulate below the entire early-born preplate population (Caviness et al., 1998). This seems incompatible with the hypothesis that cells of the subplate (the lower component of the preplate in normal mammals)(More)
Endothelial cells (ECs) form extensive, highly branched and hierarchically organized tubular networks in vertebrates to ensure the proper distribution of molecular and cellular cargo in the vertebrate body. The growth of this vascular system during development, tissue repair or in disease conditions involves the sprouting, migration and proliferation of(More)