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The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)
Natalizumab is a highly effective immunomodulator in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment with natalizumab has been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by a pathogenic form of the normally benign JC virus (JCV). We searched PubMed and used current data from(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In recent years, the role of CTA and CTP for vasospasm diagnosis in the setting of ASAH has been the subject of many research studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of CTA and CTP for vasospasm in patients with ASAH by using DSA as the criterion standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
In view of disease heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis and limited access to ex vivo specimens, different approaches must be undertaken to better understand disease pathogenesis and new therapeutic challenges. Here, we critically discuss models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that reproduce specific features of the histopathology and(More)
BACKGROUND BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) was shown to have antiinflammatory and cytoprotective properties in preclinical experiments and to result in significant reductions in disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a phase 2, placebo-controlled study involving patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). So far, immunological mechanisms responsible for demyelination have been the focus of interest. However, mechanisms regulating axon maintenance as well as glial precursor-cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte survival might also influence disease outcome. The(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fumarate (BG00012) might have dual anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of BG00012 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS 257 patients, aged 18-55 years, with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to receive 120 mg once daily (n=64),(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely regarded as an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis. A multitude of studies has investigated the neuroantigen-specific T-cell mediated cytokine pattern present in animals with EAE. In particular, the role of the so-called Th1- and Th2-cytokines has been addressed. In a recent study,(More)
The neurodegenerative aspects of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) have received increasing attention in recent years, since anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment strategies have largely failed. However, successful neuroprotection and/or neuroregeneration in MS have not been demonstrated yet. Encouraged by the multifaceted(More)