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In view of disease heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis and limited access to ex vivo specimens, different approaches must be undertaken to better understand disease pathogenesis and new therapeutic challenges. Here, we critically discuss models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that reproduce specific features of the histopathology and(More)
BACKGROUND A number of enzymatic techniques have recently been developed to detect DNA fragmentation in apoptosis at the cellular level. However, since DNA fragmentation also occurs in cellular necrosis, we studied to which extent the use of DNA polymerase (nick translation) or terminal transferase (tailing) allows the differentiation between(More)
Since DNA fragmentation is a key feature of programmed cell death (PCD) and also occurs in certain stages of necrosis, we have adapted the methodology of in situ nick-translation (ISNT) to detect DNA fragmentation on a single-cell level. We first established the technique for cell preparations. Apoptosis was induced by gamma-irradiation on freshly isolated(More)
Natalizumab is a highly effective immunomodulator in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment with natalizumab has been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by a pathogenic form of the normally benign JC virus (JCV). We searched PubMed and used current data from(More)
The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)
The neurodegenerative aspects of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) have received increasing attention in recent years, since anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment strategies have largely failed. However, successful neuroprotection and/or neuroregeneration in MS have not been demonstrated yet. Encouraged by the multifaceted(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop guidelines for the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pediatric pneumonia. OPTIONS Clinical assessment, radiography, laboratory testing, and empirical antimicrobial therapy. OUTCOMES Increased awareness of age-related causes, improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis, better utilization of diagnostic testing and the(More)
Variation in the genes encoding the interleukin (IL) 7 and IL2 receptor alpha chains (IL7RA, IL2RA) was recently found associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the role of these two genes in a large German MS case-control cohort. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL7RA and four in IL2RA were genotyped in 1319 MS patients and 908(More)
BACKGROUND BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) was shown to have antiinflammatory and cytoprotective properties in preclinical experiments and to result in significant reductions in disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a phase 2, placebo-controlled study involving patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). So far, immunological mechanisms responsible for demyelination have been the focus of interest. However, mechanisms regulating axon maintenance as well as glial precursor-cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte survival might also influence disease outcome. The(More)