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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). So far, immunological mechanisms responsible for demyelination have been the focus of interest. However, mechanisms regulating axon maintenance as well as glial precursor-cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte survival might also influence disease outcome. The(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fumarate (BG00012) might have dual anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of BG00012 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS 257 patients, aged 18-55 years, with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to receive 120 mg once daily (n=64),(More)
Intravenous application of immunoglobulins (IVIg) is an effective and usually well tolerated yet costly therapeutic regimen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We report two CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous infusion of immunoglobulins (SCIg) after IVIg therapy was shown to be effective. Application of SCIg was well tolerated,(More)
In view of disease heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis and limited access to ex vivo specimens, different approaches must be undertaken to better understand disease pathogenesis and new therapeutic challenges. Here, we critically discuss models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that reproduce specific features of the histopathology and(More)
Thirty-six patients with PTSD were randomly allocated to individual treatment with imaginal exposure (image habituation training -- IHT), or applied muscle relaxation (AMR) or eye movement desensitization (EMD). Assessment by a blind independent rater and self-report instruments applied pre and posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up indicated that all(More)
Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for multiple sclerosis treatment. BG00012 is an oral formulation of dimethylfumarate. In a phase II multiple sclerosis trial, BG00012 demonstrated beneficial effects on(More)
Fumaric acid was originally therapeutically used in psoriasis. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated immunomodulatory but also neuroprotective effects for FAE. Clinical studies in psoriasis showed a reduction of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes due to the ability of FAE to induce apoptosis. In vitro studies with the ester dimethylfumarate (DMF)(More)
Natalizumab, a highly specific α4-integrin antagonist, is approved for treatment of patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It is generally recommended for individuals who have not responded to a currently available first-line disease-modifying therapy or who have very active disease. The expected benefits of natalizumab(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder, with neurodegeneration mainly affecting the striatum. We investigated executive functions related to response inhibition in (HD) and healthy controls by means of event-related potentials (ERP) in a simple Go/Nogo-task. In Nogo as opposed to Go trials two fronto-central(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor plays a key role in neuronal and axonal survival. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in the immune cells in lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, thus potentially mediating neuroprotective effects. We investigated the functional role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in(More)