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Fixational eye movements are subdivided into tremor, drift, and microsaccades. All three types of miniature eye movements generate small random displacements of the retinal image when viewing a stationary scene. Here we investigate the modulation of microsaccades by shifts of covert attention in a classical spatial cueing paradigm. First, we replicate the(More)
Mathematical models have become an important tool for understanding the control of eye movements during reading. Main goals of the development of the SWIFT model (R. Engbert, A. Longtin, & R. Kliegl, 2002) were to investigate the possibility of spatially distributed processing and to implement a general mechanism for all types of eye movements observed in(More)
Miniature eye movements occur involuntarily during visual fixation. The most prominent contribution to these fixational eye movements is generated by microsaccades, which are rapid small-amplitude saccades with a rate of about one per second. Recent work demonstrates that microsaccades are optimized to counteract perceptual fading during perception of a(More)
Even during visual fixation of a stationary target, our eyes perform rather erratic miniature movements, which represent a random walk. These "fixational" eye movements counteract perceptual fading, a consequence of fast adaptation of the retinal receptor systems to constant input. The most important contribution to fixational eye movements is produced by(More)
We compared effects of covert spatial-attention shifts induced with exogenous or endogenous cues on microsaccade rate and direction. Separate and dissociated effects were obtained in rate and direction measures. Display changes caused microsaccade rate inhibition, followed by sustained rate enhancement. Effects on microsaccade direction were differentially(More)
Reading requires the orchestration of visual, attentional, language-related, and oculomotor processing constraints. This study replicates previous effects of frequency, predictability, and length of fixated words on fixation durations in natural reading and demonstrates new effects of these variables related to 144 sentences. Such evidence for distributed(More)
Microsaccades are one component of the small eye movements that constitute fixation. Their implementation in the oculomotor system is unknown. To better understand the physiological and mechanistic processes underlying microsaccade generation, we studied microsaccadic inhibition, a transient drop of microsaccade rate, in response to irrelevant visual and(More)
The understanding of the control of eye movements has greatly benefited from the analysis of mathematical models. Currently most comprehensive models include sequential shifts of visual attention. Here we propose an alternative model of eye movement control, which includes three new principles: spatially distributed lexical processing, a separation of(More)
During fixation of a stationary target, small involuntary eye movements exhibit an erratic trajectory-a random walk. Two types of these fixational eye movements are drift and microsaccades (small-amplitude saccades). We investigated fixational eye movements and binocular coordination using a statistical analysis that had previously been applied to human(More)
Fixational eye movements occur involuntarily during visual fixation of stationary scenes. The fastest components of these miniature eye movements are microsaccades, which can be observed about once per second. Recent studies demonstrated that microsaccades are linked to covert shifts of visual attention. Here, we generalized this finding in two ways. First,(More)