Ralf Birken

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The US roadways and bridge decks require an estimated $2.2T in investments to improve from its current <i>D</i> score in the most recent ASCE report card [29] to a good level. A network-wide health assessment of the roadway infrastructure is necessary to direct investments to the areas of most need and benefit. However, current survey methods are too(More)
Ground-penetrating imaging radar (“GPiR”) is a new technology that combines standard GPR (Ground-Penetrating Radar) with accurate positioning and advanced signal processing to create three­ dimensional (3D) images of the shallow subsurface. These images can reveal soil conditions and buried infrastructure—such as utility lines and conduits—down to depths of(More)
Understanding the future transportation infrastructure performance demands a smart Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) approach integrating heterogeneous sensors, versatile computing systems, and mobile agents. However, due to sensor versatility and computing intricacy, designing such systems faces challenges of immense complexity in mobile sensor fusion, big data(More)
Ž . Ž . Four-dimensional 4D or time-lapse three-dimensional 3D ground penetrating radar surveys can be used to monitor and image subsurface fluid flow. This information can be used to create a model of hydrogeological properties. The massive amount of data, which is present in and can possibly be generated from 4D GPR data sets, precludes a manual(More)
Heterogeneous roaming sensor systems have gained significant importance in many domains of civil infrastructure performance inspection as they accelerate data collection and analysis. However, designing such systems is challenging due to the immense complexity in the heterogeneity and processing demands of the involved sensors. Unifying frameworks are(More)
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