Ralf Bartenschlager

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Antiviral immunity against a pathogen is mounted upon recognition by the host of virally associated structures. One of these viral 'signatures', double-stranded (ds) RNA, is a replication product of most viruses within infected cells and is sensed by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the recently identified cytosolic RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global public health problem. Detailed analyses of HCV have been hampered by the lack of viral culture systems. Subgenomic replicons of the JFH1 genotype 2a strain cloned from an individual with fulminant hepatitis replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here we show that the JFH1(More)
The lipid droplet (LD) is an organelle that is used for the storage of neutral lipids. It dynamically moves through the cytoplasm, interacting with other organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These interactions are thought to facilitate the transport of lipids and proteins to other organelles. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent(More)
An estimated 170 million persons worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease. Despite increasing knowledge of genome structure and individual viral proteins, studies on virus replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of reliable and efficient cell culture systems. A full-length consensus(More)
Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange cellular membranes to facilitate viral genome replication. The biogenesis and three-dimensional organization of these membranes and the link between replication and virus assembly sites is not fully clear. Using electron microscopy, we find Dengue virus (DENV)-induced vesicles, convoluted membranes, and(More)
Studies of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cycle have been made possible with the development of subgenomic selectable RNAs that replicate autonomously in cultured cells. In these replicons the region encoding the HCV structural proteins was replaced by the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, allowing the selection of transfected cells that support(More)
Chronic liver disease caused by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important global health problem that currently affects 170 million people. A major impediment in HCV research and drug development has been the lack of culture systems supporting virus production. This obstacle was recently overcome by using JFH1-based full-length genomes that(More)
Persistent infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor for the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With an estimated about 3% of the world population infected with this virus, the lack of a prophylactic vaccine and a selective therapy, chronic hepatitis C currently is a main indication for liver(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease in humans. To gain insight into host factor requirements for HCV replication, we performed a siRNA screen of the human kinome and identified 13 different kinases, including phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha (PI4KIIIα), as being required for HCV replication. Consistent with(More)
All positive strand RNA viruses are known to replicate their genomes in close association with intracellular membranes. In case of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, infected cells contain accumulations of vesicles forming a membranous web (MW) that is thought to be the site of viral RNA replication. However, little is known(More)