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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
One way to combat P2P file sharing of copyrighted content is to deposit into the file sharing systems large volumes of polluted files. Without taking sides in the file sharing debate, in this paper we undertake a measurement study of the nature and magnitude of pollution in the FastTrack P2P network, currently the most popular P2P file sharing system. We(More)
Between 1986 and 1993, 72% of rotavirus strains isolated from newborns at five hospitals in New Delhi, India, had long electropherotypes, subgroup II VP6 antigens, and G and P genotypes (G9P11) identical to those of prototype strain 116E. A novel strain with a G9P6 genotype, representing 13% of the isolates, was identified. These results demonstrate that(More)
Myosin Va is associated with discrete vesicle populations in a number of cell types, but little is known of the function of myosin Vb. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a rabbit parietal cell cDNA library with dominant active Rab11a (Rab11aS20V) identified myosin Vb as an interacting protein for Rab11a, a marker for plasma membrane recycling systems. The(More)
1--Rats were tested for locomotor activity in photocell cages, for 80 min starting immediately after subcutaneous injection of (-)-nicotine bitartrate or 0.9% w/v NaCl solution (saline). In non-tolerant subjects, nicotine (0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg base) depressed activity and induced ataxia in the first 20 min, but increased activity later in the session; these(More)
Recent evidence suggests that apical and basolateral endocytic pathways in epithelia converge in an apically located, pericentriolar endosomal compartment termed the apical recycling endosome. In this compartment, apically and basolaterally internalized membrane constituents are thought to be sorted for recycling back to their site of origin or for(More)
We develop a simple stochastic fluid model that seeks to expose the fundamental characteristics and limitations of P2P streaming systems. This model accounts for many of the essential features of a P2P streaming system, including the peers' realtime demand for content, peer churn (peers joining and leaving), peers with heterogeneous upload capacity, limited(More)
Polarized epithelial cells maintain the polarized distribution of basolateral and apical membrane proteins through a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis, sorting, and then recycling to the appropriate membrane domain. We have previously shown that the small GTP-binding proteins, Rab11a and Rab25, are associated with the apical recycling system of(More)
The pivotal role of kinases in signal transduction and cellular regulation has lent them considerable appeal as pharmacological targets across a broad spectrum of cancers. p21-activated kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine kinases that function as downstream nodes for various oncogenic signalling pathways. Paks are well-known regulators of cytoskeletal(More)
The aim of this study was to examine possible neuropsychological changes in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease treated with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Eleven patients (age = 67 +/- 8 years, years with Parkinson's disease = 15 +/- 3, verbal IQ = 114 +/- 12) were evaluated (in their best 'on(More)