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Pathological angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and various ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. Concentrated efforts in this area of research are leading to the discovery of a growing number of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules, some of which are already in clinical trials. The complex interactions among these molecules and how they affect vascular(More)
Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to every part of the body, but also nourish diseases such as cancer. Over the past decade, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis (blood vessel growth) has increased at an explosive rate and has led to the approval of anti-angiogenic drugs for cancer and eye diseases. So far, hundreds of(More)
Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth, and many new cancer therapies are directed against the tumor vasculature. The widely held view is that these antiangiogenic therapies should destroy the tumor vasculature, thereby depriving the tumor of oxygen and nutrients. Here, I review emerging evidence supporting an alternative hypothesis-that certain(More)
As a result of deprivation of oxygen (hypoxia) and nutrients, the growth and viability of cells is reduced. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha helps to restore oxygen homeostasis by inducing glycolysis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. Here we show that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia reduce proliferation and increase apoptosis in wild-type (HIF-1alpha+/+)(More)
The transport of fluid and solute molecules in the interstitium is governed by the biological and physicochemical properties of the interstitial compartment as well as the physicochemical properties of the test molecule. The composition of the interstitial compartment of neoplastic tissues is significantly different from that of most normal tissues. In(More)
Elevated interstitial fluid pressure, a hallmark of solid tumors, can compromise the delivery of therapeutics to tumors. Here we show that blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by DC101 (a VEGF-receptor-2 antibody) decreases interstitial fluid pressure, not by restoring lymphatic function, but by producing a morphologically and(More)
The recent landmark Phase III clinical trial with a VEGF-specific antibody suggests that antiangiogenic therapy must be combined with cytotoxic therapy for the treatment of solid tumors. However, there are no guidelines for optimal scheduling of these therapies. Here we show that VEGFR2 blockade creates a "normalization window"--a period during which(More)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to the drug resistance of a solid tumor by preventing the penetration of therapeutic agents. We measured differences in interstitial resistance to macromolecule (IgG) motion in four tumor types and found an unexpected correspondence between transport resistance and the mechanical stiffness. The interstitial(More)
Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system, with nearly 15,000 diagnosed annually in the United States and a lethality approaching 80% within the first year of glioblastoma diagnosis. The marked induction of angiogenesis in glioblastomas suggests that it is a necessary part of malignant progression; however, the precise(More)
The interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been found to be as high as 20 to 50 mm Hg in both experimental and human solid tumors. While the IFP is an important determinant of the delivery of therapeutic agents to neoplastic cells in vivo, the mechanisms responsible for interstitial hypertension are not completely understood. The high vascular permeability(More)