Rakesh Agrawal

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A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling(More)
Earth abundant copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenide (CZTSSe) is an important class of material for the development of low cost and sustainable thin film solar cells. The fabrication of CZTSSe solar cells by selenization of CZTS nanocrystals is presented. By tuning the composition of the CZTS nanocrystals and developing a robust film coating method, a total area(More)
The creation of a suitable inorganic colloidal nanocrystal ink for use in a scalable coating process is a key step in the development of low-cost solar cells. Here, we present a facile solution synthesis of chalcopyrite CuInSe 2 nanocrystals and demonstrate that inks based on these nanocrystals can be used to create simple solar cells, with our first cells(More)
Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) and Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) (CZTSe) based solar cells are promising candidates for low cost solar cells due to the natural abundance and low toxicity of the constituent elements. Here, we present the first reported synthesis of colloidal CZTS nanocrystals using a simple solution-phase method. Solar cells fabricated using selenized CZTS(More)
In a solar economy, sustainably available biomass holds the potential to be an excellent nonfossil source of high energy density transportation fuel. However, if sustainably available biomass cannot supply the liquid fuel need for the entire transport sector, alternatives must be sought. This article reviews biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes that(More)
Recent developments in the colloidal synthesis of high quality nanocrystals have opened up new routes for the fabrication of low-cost efficient photovoltaic devices. Previously, we demonstrated the utility of CuInSe(2) nanocrystals in the fabrication of CuInSe(2) thin film solar cells. In those devices, sintering the nanocrystal film yields a relatively(More)
S. Dongaonkar, J. D. Servaites, G. M. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R. M. Gelfand, H. Mohseni, H. W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, M. A. Ratner, T. J. Marks, M. S. Lundstrom, and M. A. Alam School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University,(More)
We have estimated sun-to-fuel yields for the cases when dedicated fuel crops are grown and harvested to produce liquid fuel. The stand-alone biomass to liquid fuel processes, that use biomass as the main source of energy, are estimated to produce one-and-one-half to three times less sun-to-fuel yield than the augmented processes. In an augmented process,(More)