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A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling(More)
The creation of a suitable inorganic colloidal nanocrystal ink for use in a scalable coating process is a key step in the development of low-cost solar cells. Here, we present a facile solution synthesis of chalcopyrite CuInSe 2 nanocrystals and demonstrate that inks based on these nanocrystals can be used to create simple solar cells, with our first cells(More)
Earth abundant copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenide (CZTSSe) is an important class of material for the development of low cost and sustainable thin film solar cells. The fabrication of CZTSSe solar cells by selenization of CZTS nanocrystals is presented. By tuning the composition of the CZTS nanocrystals and developing a robust film coating method, a total area(More)
Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) and Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) (CZTSe) based solar cells are promising candidates for low cost solar cells due to the natural abundance and low toxicity of the constituent elements. Here, we present the first reported synthesis of colloidal CZTS nanocrystals using a simple solution-phase method. Solar cells fabricated using selenized CZTS(More)
Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells" We compare the dark current-voltage ͑IV͒ characteristics of three different thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon ͑a-Si:H͒ p-in cells, organic bulk heterojunction ͑BHJ͒ cells, and Cu͑In, Ga͒Se 2 ͑CIGS͒ cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage(More)
Recent developments in the colloidal synthesis of high quality nanocrystals have opened up new routes for the fabrication of low-cost efficient photovoltaic devices. Previously, we demonstrated the utility of CuInSe(2) nanocrystals in the fabrication of CuInSe(2) thin film solar cells. In those devices, sintering the nanocrystal film yields a relatively(More)
Keywords: H2CAR process Hybrid hydrogen–carbon process Biofuels Hydrogen Biomass Transportation fuels Thermochemical Biological processes a b s t r a c t For a successful large scale implementation of biomass-to-liquid fuel for transportation, it is imperative that production of liquid fuel from biomass be maximized. For this purpose, synergistic processes(More)