Rakesh Aggarwal

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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA (7.5 kb) virus that is responsible for large epidemics of acute hepatitis and a proportion of sporadic hepatitis cases in southeast and central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and Mexico. Hepatitis E virus infection spreads by the faecal-oral route (usually through contaminated water) and presents after(More)
Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. The virus has four genotypes with one serotype: genotypes 1 and 2 exclusively infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 also infect other animals, particularly pigs. In endemic areas, both large outbreaks of acute hepatitis as(More)
In 1991 the largest epidemic of viral hepatitis E yet reported occurred in Kanpur (population, 2.1 million), India. The incidence of icteric hepatitis from December 1990 to April 1991 among the inhabitants of 420 randomly sampled houses in seven of the city's 50 wards was 3.76% (138 out of 3666 individuals), i.e., an estimated 79,091 persons in the city as(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes(More)
BACKGROUND Data are scarce on liver involvement in adult patients with dengue virus infection. METHODS During a recent outbreak of dengue fever in Uttar Pradesh, India, we looked for evidence of liver dysfunction among patients with dengue fever. RESULTS A total of 45 patients with dengue fever (age 7-65 [median 33] years; 29 men; 39 adults) were(More)
BACKGROUND In tropical sprue (TS), response to antibiotics may suggest a role for bacterial contamination of the small bowel, which is known in diseases with prolonged orocecal transit time (OCTT). METHODS We studied 13 patients with TS (diagnosed by standard criteria) for frequency, nature and degree of bacterial contamination of the small bowel by(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication that develops in some form and at some stage in a majority of patients with liver cirrhosis. Overt HE occurs in approximately 30-45% of cirrhotic patients. Minimal HE (MHE), the mildest form of HE, is characterized by subtle motor and cognitive deficits and impairs health-related quality of life. The(More)