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Modafinil is prescribed for numerous medical conditions, but the drug's mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we examined the interaction of modafinil with receptors and transporters in vitro and compared pharmacological effects of the drug with those produced by indirect dopamine (DA) agonists(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if caffeine induces cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopaminergic drugs that act through distinct mechanisms (e.g., release, uptake inhibition, direct activation of dopamine D(1)- or D(2)-family receptors). Rats were trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine from(More)
Nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco products, produces diverse neurophysiological, motivational, and behavioral effects through several brain regions and neurochemical pathways. Various neurotransmitter systems have been explored to understand the mechanisms behind nicotine tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. Recent evidence suggests(More)
BACKGROUND Pentazocine was introduced in 1967 as a "non-narcotic, nonaddicting" analgesic. However, the abuse potential of this medication was soon recognized, and cutaneous and muscular complications of pentazocine abuse have been reported. METHODS Demographic and clinical data on 10 patients with pentazocine-induced ulcers attending the Dermatology(More)
CONTEXT There is a complex and significant correlation between respiratory disorders and psychiatric conditions. Reliability of self-reported tobacco use has been questioned in recent times. AIMS The current study aims at assessment of accuracy of self-reported tobacco use (both smoked and smokeless) among psychiatric out-patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at higher risk of tobacco-related harm compared with general population. However, they may not fully appreciate health risks even when asymptomatic. AIM The study aims to explore the perceived health risks, attitude and readiness to quit tobacco among euthymic BD patients. METHOD The adult male(More)
The effect of the ingestion of palatable fluids on the suppression of opioid withdrawals in the opioid-dependent rats was studied. Physical dependence was induced by administration of morphine over a period of 6 days. Withdrawals were precipitated with naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 h after the last morphine injection on the 6th day. Test drugs (10-30% sucrose(More)
Self-reported drug use is a principle measure in the evaluation of treatment outcome. As there have been concerns about the accuracy of self-reporting, it is necessary to establish its validity by an objective method. The aim of the study was to examine the concordance between urinary cotinine concentrations and self-reported tobacco use among drug(More)
AIM/BACKGROUND Tramadol is a synthetic opiate and a centrally acting weak m-opioid receptor agonist. The potential advantages of tramadol include ease of administration, low abuse potential, and being nonscheduled. This study compared tramadol and buprenorphine for controlling withdrawal symptoms in patients with opioid dependence syndrome. METHODS(More)
INTRODUCTION The rate of smokeless tobacco use in India is 20%; its use causes serious health problems, and no trial has assessed behavioral or pharmacological treatments for this public health concern. This trial evaluated varenicline for treating smokeless tobacco dependence in India. METHODS This was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial(More)