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This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This paper examines, in(More)
The security of bio-metric information – finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information-transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world.(More)
The recent financial crisis has brought to the forefront renewed concerns about the merit of financial development, especially for the most vulnerable segments of our population. Studies on the relationship between financial development and poverty have been inconclusive. Some claim that, by allowing more entrepreneurs to obtain financing, financial(More)
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. The value-added tax(More)
Trade and Poverty in Africa Trade liberalization is being actively promoted as a key component of development strategies. Through greater efficiency in resource allocation, specialization in production, dissemination of knowledge and technological progress, and competition , trade liberalization should favor economic development and growth. How is this(More)
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