Raju G. Kurup

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We present the percent depth doses, half-value thicknesses, exposure rates in air, dose uniformity, backscatter factors, isodose curves, and penumbra widths for 75-kVp, 100-kVp, 150-kVp, 200-kVp, and 250-kVp beams for rectangular cones (4 cm x 6 cm, 6 cm x 8 cm, and 8 cm x 10 cm) and exposure rates in air and backscatter factors for cylindrical cones(More)
We describe the use of polystyrene wedges to match adjacent electron beams with improved dose uniformity. These wedges were designed to increase the penumbra width at the field junction from about 1.5 to about 3.5 cm, to achieve dose uniformity. Measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and therapy localization film showed that the use of(More)
Four-element dipole microwave antenna arrays with square insertion patterns are commonly used clinically for interstitial hyperthermia. One major disadvantage with this type of antenna array is the presence of a large dead length at the tips because the current gradually decreases from maximum at the junctions to zero at the tips. This dead length is(More)
The accuracy of dose calculations from a pencil-beam algorithm developed specifically for arc electron beam therapy was evaluated at 10 and 15 MeV. Mid-arc depth-doses were measured for 0 degrees and 90 degrees arcs using 12 and 15 cm radius cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated depth-doses for the 90 degrees arced beams in the build-up region were as much(More)
Computer algorithms for rotational therapy beams, in most cases, perform dose calculations by summing stored fixed beam data at finite angular steps. Such an algorithm, based on the Bentley beam model, was evaluated by comparing calculations with measured data for an 18-MV x-ray beam. Measurements were made in a specially constructed cylindrical water(More)
Dipole-regular microwave interstitial antennas are characterized with a "dead" space located along the tip segment of the antenna. The length of the "dead" space is on the order of 2 cm or larger, depending on the antenna's insertion depth. If the insertion depth is smaller than 4 cm, then coupling of the antennas to tissue becomes a problem. Catheters that(More)
A two-dimensional pencil-beam algorithm is presented for the calculation of arc electron dose distributions in any plane that is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The dose distributions are calculated by modelling the arced beam as a single broad beam defined by the irradiated surface of the patient. The algorithm is two-dimensional in that the(More)
The dosimetry and dose verification for 6-MV X-rays were performed for radiosurgery cones of 5- to 40-mm diameter. The total scatter factors decrease slowly from 0.936 (40-mm cone) to 0.893 (10-mm cone; a variation of 5%), but they fall to 0.83 (7.5-mm cone) and 0.67 (5-mm cone). The dmax increases from about 12.9 (5-mm cone) to 16.3 mm (40-mm cone). The(More)
A dosimetric study of anterior electron beam irradiation for treatment of retinoblastoma was performed to evaluate the influence of tissue heterogeneities on the dose distribution within the eye and the accuracy of the dose calculated by a pencil beam algorithm. Film measurements were made in a variety of polystyrene phantoms and in a removable polystyrene(More)