Raju G. Kurup

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We present the percent depth doses, half-value thicknesses, exposure rates in air, dose uniformity, backscatter factors, isodose curves, and penumbra widths for 75-kVp, 100-kVp, 150-kVp, 200-kVp, and 250-kVp beams for rectangular cones (4 cm x 6 cm, 6 cm x 8 cm, and 8 cm x 10 cm) and exposure rates in air and backscatter factors for cylindrical cones(More)
The dosimetry and dose verification for 6-MV X-rays were performed for radiosurgery cones of 5- to 40-mm diameter. The total scatter factors decrease slowly from 0.936 (40-mm cone) to 0.893 (10-mm cone; a variation of 5%), but they fall to 0.83 (7.5-mm cone) and 0.67 (5-mm cone). The dmax increases from about 12.9 (5-mm cone) to 16.3 mm (40-mm cone). The(More)
It is necessary to know the output factors (dose per monitor unit at depth of maximum) for irregularly shaped electron beam fields to accurately deliver the prescribed dose to the target. Measuring the output factors for individually shaped electron beam fields for each patient is inconvenient. Using the measured output factors for two square fields, one(More)
A dosimetric study of anterior electron beam irradiation for treatment of retinoblastoma was performed to evaluate the influence of tissue heterogeneities on the dose distribution within the eye and the accuracy of the dose calculated by a pencil beam algorithm. Film measurements were made in a variety of polystyrene phantoms and in a removable polystyrene(More)
A simulator should mimic the geometry of the treatment machine. If the geometry of the simulator does not match that of the therapy machine, true simulation of treatment could be a problem. Pseudosimulation is a simple, practical solution to this problem. We have successfully implemented this technique for over a year in our clinic for about 70 patients.
Four-element dipole microwave antenna arrays with square insertion patterns are commonly used clinically for interstitial hyperthermia. One major disadvantage with this type of antenna array is the presence of a large dead length at the tips because the current gradually decreases from maximum at the junctions to zero at the tips. This dead length is(More)
We describe the use of polystyrene wedges to match adjacent electron beams with improved dose uniformity. These wedges were designed to increase the penumbra width at the field junction from about 1.5 to about 3.5 cm, to achieve dose uniformity. Measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and therapy localization film showed that the use of(More)
Dipole-regular microwave interstitial antennas are characterized with a "dead" space located along the tip segment of the antenna. The length of the "dead" space is on the order of 2 cm or larger, depending on the antenna's insertion depth. If the insertion depth is smaller than 4 cm, then coupling of the antennas to tissue becomes a problem. Catheters that(More)
PURPOSE A technique that improves heating of superficial tissues above an implant of microwave interstitial antennas is presented. METHODS AND MATERIALS Adequate heating of tumor margins is achieved by extending an implant of microwave antennas beyond the tumor boundary by 1-2 cm. When the tumor infiltrates the superficial tissues including the skin, the(More)