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Recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a TB antigen, MPT64, were tested for their ability to protect mice against tuberculosis challenge. A chimeric gene consisting of the spore coat gene cotB fused to mpt64 was constructed, and expression of a stable CotB-MPT64 hybrid protein of the spore coat verified. Spores were evaluated as a live vaccine and(More)
The low-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, CD23 (FcepsilonRII), binds both IgE and CD21 and, through these interactions, regulates the synthesis of IgE, the antibody isotype that mediates the allergic response. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the C-type lectin domain of CD23 in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance(More)
The influence of Th2 cytokines in tuberculosis has been a matter of dispute. Here we report that IL-4 has a profound regulatory effect on the infection of BALB/c mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Depletion of IL-4 with a neutralizing mAb caused only evanescent reduction of lung infection, but when combined with i.n. inoculations of IgA(More)
Lymphocytes usually differentiate into effector cells within days after antigen exposure, except in germinal centers where terminal differentiation is delayed while somatic hypermutation creates high-affinity antibody mutants. Here we investigate whether arrest of terminal differentiation can be mediated by BCL-6, a transcriptional repressor that is(More)
Molecular Pharming represents an unprecedented opportunity to manufacture affordable modern medicines and make these available at a global scale. The area of greatest potential is in the prevention of infectious diseases, particular in underdeveloped countries where access to medicines and vaccines has historically been limited. This is why, at St.(More)
We report on a new approach toward protection against tuberculosis, based on passive inoculation with immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. In a mouse model of tuberculous lung infection, intranasal inoculations of mice with an IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the alpha-crystallin antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reduced up to 10-fold the lung(More)
Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective(More)
Abs have been shown to be protective in passive immunotherapy of tuberculous infection using mouse experimental models. In this study, we report on the properties of a novel human IgA1, constructed using a single-chain variable fragment clone (2E9), selected from an Ab phage library. The purified Ab monomer revealed high binding affinities for the(More)
Drug treatment is the key strategy in TB control. However, the treatment course lasts 6-9 months because the current anti-TB drugs are poorly effective against nondividing (i.e., persistent) bacilli. As a result, completion rates are unsatisfactory, leading to emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant infection. It would, therefore, be very desirable to(More)
TNF-alpha is an essential component of the innate defence mechanism of the host against pathogenic challenge. Unfortunately, it can also play a major role in the pathology of certain diseases, such as tuberculosis. This disease is a striking example of the role of TNF-alpha as a 'double-edged sword', because apart from its role in controlling the(More)