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Although we have studied schizophrenia as a major disease entity over the past century, its causes and pathogenesis remain obscure. In this article, we critically review genetic and other epidemiological findings and discuss the insights they provide into the causes of schizophrenia. The annual incidence of schizophrenia averages 15 per 100,000, the point(More)
Although dementia praecox or schizophrenia has been considered a unique disease entity for the past century, its definitions and boundaries have continued to vary over this period. At any given time, the changing concept of schizophrenia has been influenced by available diagnostic tools and treatments, related conditions from which it most needs to be(More)
Investigating the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia is a critical step toward establishing its diagnostic validity, predicting outcome, delineating causative mechanisms and identifying objective targets for treatment research. Over the past two decades, there have been several advances in this field, principally related to developments in neuroimaging,(More)
OBJECTIVE BETA was designed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated in a general psychiatry outpatient practice setting. METHODS In this 8-week, multicenter, open-label study, 1,599 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to receive(More)
Although the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia, the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia fails to explain all aspects of this disorder. It is increasingly evident that the pathology of schizophrenia also involves other neurotransmitter systems. Data from many streams of research including(More)
Although dementia praecox or schizophrenia has been considered a unique disease for over a century, its definitions and boundaries have changed over this period and its etiology and pathophysiology remain elusive. Despite changing definitions, DSM-IV schizophrenia is reliably diagnosed, has fair validity and conveys useful clinical information. Therefore,(More)
For every disorder, there is a set of established findings and accepted constructs upon which further understanding is built. The concept of schizophrenia as a disease entity has been with us for a little more than a century, although descriptions resembling this condition predate this conceptualization. In 1988, for the inaugural issue of Schizophrenia(More)
Previously, clinicians worked with antipsychotic drugs (conventional or typical) that almost invariably caused extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) at clinically effective doses. This led to the false impression that all antipsychotics were the same, and that EPS were an unavoidable consequence of effective antipsychotic therapy. EPS adversely impact several(More)
The recent introduction of the atypical antipsychotics into the treatment arena for psychoses and related disorders comes with justifiable excitement. These newer antipsychotics offer several clinical benefits over the conventional antipsychotics, which have been the mainstays of care thus far. The primary advantage of these atypical agents is their(More)
Previously, clinicians worked with antipsychotic drugs that almost invariably caused extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) at the dose at which they were clinically effective. By definition, all newer generation atypical antipsychotic agents are significantly better than conventional agents with regard to EPS; i.e., they are clinically effective at doses at(More)