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Reliable prediction of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) has the potential to optimize treatment. Here we operationalized the empiric concept of renal angina with a renal angina index (RAI) and determined the predictive performance of RAI. This was assessed on admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, for subsequent severe AKI (over 200% rise in serum(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to high rates of morbidity and independently increases mortality risk. Therapy for AKI is likely limited by the inability to reliably diagnose AKI in its early stages, and, importantly, small changes in serum creatinine may be associated with poor outcomes and severe AKI. Whereas AKI biomarker research seeks to identify more(More)
There is a growing appreciation for the role that acute kidney injury (AKI) plays in the propagation of critical illness. In children, AKI is not only an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with especially negative outcomes when concurrent with acute lung injury (ALI). Experimental data provide evidence that kidney-lung(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an epidemic problem. Sepsis has long been recognized as a foremost precipitant of AKI. Sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI) portends a high burden of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults with critical illness. Although our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, SA-AKI likely represents a distinct subset of(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this review is to report how administrative data have been used to study AKI, identify current limitations, and suggest how these data sources might be enhanced to address knowledge gaps in the field. OBJECTIVES 1) To review the existing evidence-base on how AKI is coded across administrative datasets, 2) To identify(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a central stimulus of the events leading to chronic progressive kidney disease, having been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrogenesis. The fact that it mediates these varied events suggests that multiple mechanisms play a role in determining the outcome of TGF-beta(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease may develop following acute kidney injury and that this may be due, in part, to hypoxia-related phenomena. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is stabilized in hypoxic conditions and regulates multiple signaling pathways that could contribute to renal fibrosis. As transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is(More)
OBJECTIVES To inform the pediatric intensivist of recent advancements in acute kidney injury diagnosis and management. DATA SOURCES Studies were identified from MEDLINE (OVID), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for topics relevant to acute kidney injury. We also reviewed bibliographies of relevant studies. DATA EXTRACTION, SYNTHESIS, AND OUTLINE REVIEW:(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Evaluate risk factors for and impact of acute kidney injury on children following the arterial switch operation. DESIGN Single-center retrospective chart review. SETTING A tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS A total of 92 patients receiving the arterial switch operation from 1997 to 2008 at severe acute kidney injury was(More)
OBJECTIVE Septic shock heterogeneity has important implications for clinical trial implementation and patient management. We previously addressed this heterogeneity by identifying three putative subclasses of children with septic shock based exclusively on a 100-gene expression signature. Here we attempted to prospectively validate the existence of these(More)