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Since 1990, South Asia has experienced a resurgence of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). To determine risk factors for kala-azar, we performed cross-sectional surveys over a 3-year period in a Bangladeshi community. By history, active case detection, and serologic screening, 155 of 2,356 residents had kala-azar with onset from 2000 to 2003. Risk was(More)
BACKGROUND Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in(More)
Although, when applied under controlled conditions in India and Nepal, indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been found to reduce sandfly densities significantly, it is not known if IRS will be as effective when applied generally in these countries, via the national programmes for the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. The potential benefits and(More)
We examined the epidemiology of kala-azar and asymptomatic leishmanial infection measured by serologic and leishmanin skin test results in a Bangladeshi community. In a subset, we measured serum retinol, zinc and C-reactive protein (CRP). Kala-azar and seroconversion incidence were 15.6 and 63.1 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Proximity to a previous(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of zinc supplementation in children with cholera. DESIGN Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING Dhaka Hospital, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS 179 children aged 3-14 years with watery diarrhoea and stool dark field examination positive for Vibrio cholerae and confirmed by stool culture. INTERVENTION(More)
Integrated vector management is a pillar of the South Asian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination program, but the best approach remains a matter of debate. Sand fly seasonality was determined in 40 houses sampled monthly. The impact of interventions on Phlebotomus argentipes density was tested from 2006-2007 in a cluster-randomized trial with four arms:(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of zinc supplementation on clinical recovery, weight gain and subsequent growth and morbidity in moderately malnourished children with shigellosis. DESIGN A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. SETTING Dhaka hospital of ICDDR,B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS Fifty-six(More)
The sandflies that transmit the parasites causing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can be controlled by several methods, including indoor residual spraying (IRS), the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and ecological vector management (EVM). The financial costs of each of these three methods of sandfly control have recently been assessed and(More)
Diarrhea, a descriptive term used in medical science for a variety of clinical diseases, denotes an illness that is categorized differently and known by numerous terms in various cultures. These diversified classifications and terminologies are based on the symptoms of diarrheal disorders, their perceived etiology, and their treatment. In Bangladesh, four(More)
Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E) toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying(More)