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Combined clinical and laboratory investigations of MEN-1 have resulted in an increased understanding of this disorder, which may be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. Defining the features of each disease manifestation in MEN-1 has improved patient management and treatment and has facilitated a screening protocol. Application of the techniques of(More)
Terminal deletions of chromosome 10p result in a DiGeorge-like phenotype that includes hypoparathyroidism, heart defects, immune deficiency, deafness and renal malformations. Studies in patients with 10p deletions have defined two non-overlapping regions that contribute to this complex phenotype. These are the DiGeorge critical region II (refs 1, 2), which(More)
Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association(More)
Mutations of the human CLCN5 gene, which encodes the CLC-5 Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger, lead to Dent's disease. Mutations result in functional defects that range from moderate reductions to complete loss of whole cell currents, although the severity of the functional defect rarely correlates with the severity of the disease. To further elucidate the basis of CLC-5(More)
The cloning of the BoPCaR1 gene has helped to elucidate many aspects of normal extracellular calcium homeostasis, particularly as applied to the regulation of PTH secretion, calcitonin secretion and renal calcium reabsorption. In addition, loss and gain of function mutations have been found to cause the clinical syndromes of FBH, NSHPT and ADHH(More)
Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia, inappropriately low serum parathyroid hormone concentrations and hypercalciuria. ADH is genetically heterogeneous with ADH type 1 (ADH1), the predominant form, being caused by germline gain-of-function mutations of the G-protein coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), and ADH2 caused(More)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands within a single patient. Four major forms of MEN, which are autosomal dominant disorders, are recognized and referred to as: MEN type 1 (MEN1), due to menin mutations; MEN2 (previously MEN2A) due to mutations of a tyrosine kinase receptor(More)
These guidelines update previous guidance published in 2005. They have been revised by a group who are members of the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society with endorsement from the clinical committees of the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Society for Endocrinology, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (and its Surgical(More)
Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), which affect 12% of males and 5% of females in the western world, are familial in 45% of patients and are most commonly associated with hypercalciuria. Three disorders of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (Dent's disease, X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN), and X-linked recessive hypophosphataemic rickets (XLRH)) have(More)