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The cellular kinase complex P-TEFb is composed of Cdk9 and cyclin T, and it is required for expression of most protein-coding genes by RNAP II. Cdk9 has been shown recently to be activated in cis by autophosphorylation of Thr186 in its T-loop. Using a phosphospecific Cdk9 antibody, we examined the level of Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation in resting and(More)
Sequencing flexibility refers to the possibility of interchanging the order in which required manufacturing operations are performed. In this paper, we address several issues related to the modeling, measurement and performance evaluation of this flexibility in manufacturing systems. In particular, we introduce several representation and measurement schemes(More)
HIV-1 envelope gp41 is a transmembrane protein that promotes fusion of the virus with the plasma membrane of the host cells required for virus entry. In addition, gp41 is an important target for the immune response and development of antiviral and vaccine strategies, especially when targeting the highly variable envelope gp120 has not met with resounding(More)
Nasal NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTCL) are a subset of aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The role of EBV in pathogenesis of NKTCL is not clear. Intriguingly, EBV encodes more than 40 microRNAs (miRNA) that are differentially expressed and largely conserved in lymphocryptoviruses. While miRNAs play a critical role in the(More)
HIV-1 is dependent upon cellular co-factors to mediate its replication cycle in CD4(+) T cells and macrophages, the two major cell types infected by the virus in vivo. One critical co-factor is Cyclin T1, a subunit of a general RNA polymerase II elongation factor known as P-TEFb. Cyclin T1 is targeted directly by the viral Tat protein to activate proviral(More)
Cdk9 is the catalytic subunit of a general RNA polymerase II elongation factor known as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). The kinase function of P-TEFb requires phosphorylation of Thr-186 in the T-loop of Cdk9 to allow substrates to access the catalytic core of the enzyme. To identify human phosphatases that dephosphorylate the T-loop of(More)
Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation is a tightly regulated process and is dependent upon positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb). The core P-TEFb complex is composed of Cdk9 and Cyclin T and is essential for the expression of most protein coding genes. Cdk9 kinase function is dependent upon phosphorylation of Thr186 in its(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) rev exons 1 and 2 sequences were analyzed from six mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission. The rev open reading frame was maintained with a frequency of 93.96% in six mother-infant pairs' sequences. There was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and estimates of genetic diversity in mother-infant(More)
HIV-1 Tat activates RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) elongation of the integrated provirus by recruiting a protein kinase known as P-TEFb to TAR RNA at the 5′ end of nascent viral transcripts. The catalytic core of P-TEFb contains CDK9 and Cyclin T1 (CCNT1). A human endogenous complexome has recently been described – the set of multi-protein complexes in HeLa(More)
The majority of HIV-1-infected neonates and infants have a higher level of viremia and develop AIDS more rapidly than infected adults, including differences seen in clinical manifestations. To determine the mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in neonates vs. adults, we compared the replication kinetics of HIV-1 in neonatal (cord) and adult blood T lymphocytes and(More)