Rajesh Ramakrishnan

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The cellular kinase complex P-TEFb is composed of Cdk9 and cyclin T, and it is required for expression of most protein-coding genes by RNAP II. Cdk9 has been shown recently to be activated in cis by autophosphorylation of Thr186 in its T-loop. Using a phosphospecific Cdk9 antibody, we examined the level of Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation in resting and(More)
Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation is a tightly regulated process and is dependent upon positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb). The core P-TEFb complex is composed of Cdk9 and Cyclin T and is essential for the expression of most protein coding genes. Cdk9 kinase function is dependent upon phosphorylation of Thr186 in its(More)
Sequencing flexibility refers to the possibility of interchanging the order in which required manufacturing operations are performed. In this paper, we address several issues related to the modeling, measurement and performance evaluation of this flexibility in manufacturing systems. In particular, we introduce several representation and measurement schemes(More)
Cdk9 is the catalytic subunit of a general RNA polymerase II elongation factor known as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). The kinase function of P-TEFb requires phosphorylation of Thr-186 in the T-loop of Cdk9 to allow substrates to access the catalytic core of the enzyme. To identify human phosphatases that dephosphorylate the T-loop of(More)
Nasal NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTCL) are a subset of aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The role of EBV in pathogenesis of NKTCL is not clear. Intriguingly, EBV encodes more than 40 microRNAs (miRNA) that are differentially expressed and largely conserved in lymphocryptoviruses. While miRNAs play a critical role in the(More)
Several subtypes of HIV-1 circulate in infected people worldwide, including subtype B in the United States and subtype C in Africa and India. To understand the biological properties of HIV-1 subtype C, including cellular tropism, virus entry, replication efficiency and cytopathic effects, we reciprocally inserted our previously characterized envelope V3–V5(More)
HIV-1 Tat activates RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) elongation of the integrated provirus by recruiting a protein kinase known as P-TEFb to TAR RNA at the 5′ end of nascent viral transcripts. The catalytic core of P-TEFb contains CDK9 and Cyclin T1 (CCNT1). A human endogenous complexome has recently been described – the set of multi-protein complexes in HeLa(More)
Processive elongation of the integrated HIV-1 provirus is dependent on recruitment of P-TEFb by the viral Tat protein to the viral TAR RNA element. P-TEFb kinase activity requires phosphorylation of Thr186 in the T-loop of the CDK9 subunit. In resting CD4+T cells, low levels of T-loop phosphorylated CDK9 are found, which increase significantly upon(More)
Productive transcription of the integrated HIV-1 provirus is restricted by cellular factors that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation. The viral Tat protein overcomes this by recruiting a general elongation factor, P-TEFb, to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5' end of nascent viral transcripts. P-TEFb exists in multiple complexes in cells, and its core(More)
We have characterized the primary RRE sequences of HIV-1, including in vivo genetic variation and functional motifs required for Rev-RRE interactions as well as evaluated the RNA secondary structures of RRE derived from five mother-infant pairs following vertical transmission. Multiple (157) RRE sequences derived from mother-infant pairs showed that primary(More)