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We describe a new mode of optical lithography called absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) in which a thin film of photochromic material is placed on top of a conventional photoresist and illuminated simultaneously by a focal spot of wavelength lambda1 and a ring-shaped illumination of wavelength lambda2. The lambda1 radiation converts the(More)
In the past, the formation of microscale patterns in the far field by light has been diffractively limited in resolution to roughly half the wavelength of the radiation used. Here, we demonstrate lines with an average width of 36 nanometers (nm), about one-tenth the illuminating wavelength lambda1 = 325 nm, made by applying a film of thermally stable(More)
This paper demonstrates a model for electricity delivery and revenue collection in a rural context with the potential to increase the reliability of service delivery and lower operating costs compared to traditional fixed monthly fee utilities. The microutility in this paper provides power on a pre-paid basis similar to the way cellular phone air-time is(More)
Zone-Plate-Array Lithography (ZPAL) is an optical-maskless-lithography technique, in which an array of tightly focused spots is formed on the surface of a substrate by means of an array of high-numerical-aperture zone plates. The substrate is scanned while an upstream spatial-light modulator, enabling " dot-matrix " style writing, modulates the light(More)
Earlier we reported on a proof-of-concept maskless-lithography system that used an array of Fresnel zone plates to focus multiple beams of 442 nm light onto a substrate, and micromechanics for multiplexing light to the several zone plates, enabling patterns of arbitrary geometry, at 350 nm linewidth, to be written. We referred to the technique as(More)
In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced spectral bands. These bands are then absorbed by single-junction photovoltaic cells, whose band gaps correspond to the incident(More)
Absorbance modulation is an approach that enables the localization of light to deep sub-wavelength dimensions by the use of photochromic materials. In this article, we demonstrate the application of absorbance modulation on a transparent (quartz) substrate, which enables patterning of isolated lines of width 60 nm for an exposure wavelength of 325 nm.(More)
Microscopy in hard-to-reach parts of a sample, such as the deep brain, can be enabled by computational-cannula microscopy (CCM), where light is transported from one end to the other end of a solid-glass cannula. Computational methods are applied to unscramble the recorded signal to obtain the object details. Since the cannula itself can be microscopic (∼250(More)
Localization of a single fluorescent particle with sub-diffraction-limit accuracy is a key merit in localization microscopy. Existing methods such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) achieve localization accuracies of single emitters that can reach an order of magnitude lower than the(More)
By saturating a photochromic transition with a nodal illumination (wavelength, λ), one isomeric form of a small molecule is spatially localized to a region smaller than the far-field diffraction limit. A selective oxidation step effectively locks this pattern allowing repeated patterning. Using this approach and a two-beam interferometer, we demonstrate(More)