Rajeev M. Nepal

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Antibody diversification necessitates targeted mutation of regions within the immunoglobulin locus by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). While AID is known to act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the source, structure, and distribution of these substrates in vivo remain unclear. Using the technique of in situ bisulfite treatment, we characterized(More)
An effective immune response requires B cells to produce several classes of antibodies through the process of class switch recombination (CSR). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase initiates CSR by deaminating deoxycytidines at switch regions within the Ig locus. This activity leads to double-stranded DNA break formation at the donor and recipient switch(More)
Calpains are cysteine proteases that have been implicated as both effectors and suppressors of apoptosis. Previously, we showed that c-myc transformation regulated calpain activity and sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by calpain inhibition. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of calpain in the Eμ-myc transgenic model of B-cell(More)
DNA breaks caused by recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induce c-myc/immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain chromosomal translocations and thereby stimulate lymphomagenesis. However, constitutive expression of c-myc alone is not sufficient to induce lymphomas. Because RAG1 and AID activity occurs outside of Ig(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) requires activation-induced deaminase (AID) to instigate double-stranded DNA breaks at the immunoglobulin locus. DNA breaks activate the DNA damage response (DDR) by inducing phosphorylation of histone H2AX followed by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair. We carried out a genome-wide screen to identify CSR factors. We(More)
C-Myc is one of the most common targets of genetic alterations in human cancers. Although overexpression of c-Myc in the B cell compartment predisposes to lymphomas, secondary mutations are required for disease manifestation. In this article, we show that genetic deficiencies causing arrested B cell development and accumulation of B cell progenitors lead to(More)
Deficiency in Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair (MMR) system, leads to an approximately 10-fold increase in the mutation frequency in most tissues. By contrast, Msh2 deficiency in germinal center (GC) B cells decreases the mutation frequency at the IgH V region as a dU:dG mismatch produced by AID initiates modifications by MMR, resulting in mutations(More)
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