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In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2)(More)
Moderate loadings of cellulase enzyme supplemented with beta-glucosidase were applied to solids produced by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycle (ARP), controlled pH, dilute sulfuric acid, lime, and sulfur dioxide pretreatments to better understand factors that control glucose and xylose release following 24, 48, and 72 h of hydrolysis and define(More)
Intra-individual variability in reaction time increases with age and with neurological disorders, but the neural correlates of this increased variability remain uncertain. We hypothesized that both faster mean reaction time (RT) and less intra-individual RT variability would be associated with larger corpus callosum (CC) size in older adults, and that these(More)
Previous work on multiobjective genetic algorithms has been focused on preventing genetic drift and the issue of convergence has been given little attention. In this paper, we present a simple steady-state strategy, Pareto Converging Genetic Algorithm (PCGA), which naturally samples the solution space and ensures population advancement towards the(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety and efficacy of two alternatives for surgically treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), i.e. transurethral vapour resection of the prostate (TUVRP) and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HOLEP), with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the standard surgical therapy, as treating large(More)
Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Tween-20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) were added to washed corn stover solids produced by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, controlled pH, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) pretreatments and to untreated corn stover (UT) and pure Avicel glucan prior to adding(More)
In 3D VLSI, through-silicon vias (TSVs) are relatively large, and closely spaced. This results in a situation in which noise on one or more TSVs may deteriorate the delay and signal integrity of neighboring TSVs. In this paper, we first quantify the parasitics in contemporary TSVs, and then come up with a classification of crosstalk sequences as OC, 1C,...(More)
Solids resulting from pretreatment of corn stover by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) technologies were hydrolyzed by enzyme cocktails based on cellulase supplemented with beta-glucosidase at an activity ratio of 1:2, respectively, and augmented with up to 11.0 g(More)
Although essential to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass to sugars for fermentation to ethanol or other products, enzyme adsorption and its relationship to substrate features has received limited attention, and little data and insight have been developed on cellulase adsorption for promising pretreatment options, with almost no data available to(More)