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In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2)(More)
In software engineering, system modeling is the process of formulating a representation of a real system in an abstract way to understand its behavior. Software testing encourages reusing these models for testing purpose. This expedites the process of test case generation. UML structural and behavioral specification diagrams have been used by testing(More)
Previous work on multiobjective genetic algorithms has been focused on preventing genetic drift and the issue of convergence has been given little attention. In this paper, we present a simple steady-state strategy, Pareto Converging Genetic Algorithm (PCGA), which naturally samples the solution space and ensures population advancement towards the(More)
This work presents an iterative anytime heuris-tic search algorithm called Anytime Window A* (AWA*) where node expansion is localized within a sliding window comprising of levels of the search tree/graph. The search starts in depth-first mode and gradually proceeds towards A* by increment-ing the window size. An analysis on a uniform tree model provides(More)
Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) are increasingly being used for effectively solving many real-world problems, and many empirical results are available. However, theoretical analysis is limited to a few simple toy functions. In this work, we select the well-known knapsack problem for the analysis. The multiobjective knapsack problem in its(More)
Comparative data is presented on glucose and xylose release for enzymatic hydrolysis of solids produced by pretreatment of poplar wood by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough (FT), lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) technologies. Sugar solubilization was measured for times of up to 72 h(More)
In this paper, we suggest a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on a restricted mating pool (REMO) with a separate archive for storing the remaining population. Such archive based algorithms have been used for solving real-world applications, however, no theoretical results are available. In this paper , we present a rigorous running time complexity(More)