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Sensitivity and specificity are two components that measure the inherent validity of a diagnostic test for dichotomous outcomes against a gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is the plot that depicts the trade-off between the sensitivity and (1-specificity) across a series of cut-off points when the diagnostic test is continuous or(More)
Previous work on multiobjective genetic algorithms has been focused on preventing genetic drift and the issue of convergence has been given little attention. In this paper, we present a simple steady-state strategy, Pareto Converging Genetic Algorithm (PCGA), which naturally samples the solution space and ensures population advancement towards the(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety and efficacy of two alternatives for surgically treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), i.e. transurethral vapour resection of the prostate (TUVRP) and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HOLEP), with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the standard surgical therapy, as treating large(More)
In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2)(More)
Moderate loadings of cellulase enzyme supplemented with beta-glucosidase were applied to solids produced by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycle (ARP), controlled pH, dilute sulfuric acid, lime, and sulfur dioxide pretreatments to better understand factors that control glucose and xylose release following 24, 48, and 72 h of hydrolysis and define(More)
Intra-individual variability in reaction time increases with age and with neurological disorders, but the neural correlates of this increased variability remain uncertain. We hypothesized that both faster mean reaction time (RT) and less intra-individual RT variability would be associated with larger corpus callosum (CC) size in older adults, and that these(More)
BACKGROUND There is a rapid emergence of cardiovascular disease in India with economic development, leading to an increase in mortality due to these diseases. The exact causes of death in India, however, are not known. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We studied randomly selected death records from 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) victims, aged 25-64 years, out of 3034(More)
In software engineering, system modeling is the process of formulating a representation of a real system in an abstract way to understand its behavior. Software testing encourages reusing these models for testing purpose. This expedites the process of test case generation. UML structural and behavioral specification diagrams have been used by testing(More)
OBJECTIVES Screening for prostate cancer using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) determination has a positive predictive value of only 30% to 42% for a PSA level between 4 and 10 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which identifies cancer on the basis of changes in cellular metabolite levels, might be able to identify patients with(More)