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The Continuous Double Auction (CDA) is the dominant market institution for real-world trading of equities, commodities, derivatives, etc. We describe a series of laboratory experiments that, for the first time, allow human subjects to interact with software bidding agents in a CDA. Our bidding agents use strategies based on extensions of the(More)
Server farms today consume more than 1.5% of the total electricity in the U.S. at a cost of nearly $4.5 billion. Given the rising cost of energy, many industries are now seeking solutions for how to best make use of their available power. An important question which arises in this context is how to distribute available power among servers in a server farm(More)
How does evolution produce sophisticated emergent computation in systems composed of simple components limited to local interactions? To model such a process, we used a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve cellular automata to perform a computational task requiring globally-coordinated information processing. On most runs a class of relatively unsophisticated(More)
We investigate the ability of a genetic algorithm to design cellular au-tomata that perform computations. The computational strategies of the resulting cellular automata can be understood using a framework in which " particles " embedded in space-time configurations carry information and interactions between particles effect information processing. This(More)
Utility functions provide a natural and advantageous framework for achieving self-optimization in distributed au-tonomic computing systems. We present a distributed architecture , implemented in a realistic prototype data center, that demonstrates how utility functions can enable a collection of autonomic elements to continually optimize the use of(More)
The goal of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. This paper presents Unity, a decentralized architecture for autonomic computing based on multiple interacting agents called autonomic elements. We illustrate how the Unity architecture realizes a number of desired(More)
How does an evolutionary process interact with a decentralized, distributed system in order to produce globally coordinated behavior? Using a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve cellular automata (CAs), we show that the evolution of spontaneous synchronization , one type of emergent coordination, takes advantage of the underlying medium's potential to form(More)
We review recent work done by our group on applying genetic algorithms (GAs) to the design of cellular automata (CAs) that can perform computations requiring global coordination. A GA was used to evolve CAs for two computational tasks: density classiication and synchronization. In both cases, the GA discovered rules that gave rise to sophisticated emergent(More)
We develop a model for analyzing complex games with repeated interactions, for which a full game-theoretic analysis is intractable. Our approach treats exogenously specified, heuristic strategies, rather than the atomic actions, as primitive , and computes a heuristic-payoff table specifying the expected payoffs of the joint heuristic strategy space. We(More)