Rajarshi Bhadra

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Advanced age is associated with immune system deficits that result in an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases; however, specific mediators of age-dependent immune dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrated that aged mice exhibit poor effector CD8+ T cell polyfunctionality, primarily due to CD8+ T cell-extrinsic deficits, and(More)
In this study, we document that Toxoplasma gondii differentiation and reactivation are mediated by systemic CD8 T-cell dysfunction during chronic infection. We demonstrate that CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion occurs despite control of parasitemia during early-chronic toxoplasmosis. During later phases, these cells become exhausted, leading to parasite reactivation(More)
We reported earlier that during chronic toxoplasmosis CD8(+) T cells become functionally exhausted with concomitant PD-1 upregulation, leading to eventual host mortality. However, how immune exhaustion specifically mediates attrition of CD8 polyfunctionality, a hallmark of potent T-cell response, during persistent infections has not been addressed. In this(More)
Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a robust CD8 T-cell immunity that is critical for keeping chronic infection under control. In studies using animal models, it has been demonstrated that the absence of this response can compromise the host ability to keep chronic infection under check. Therapeutic agents that facilitate the induction and maintenance of(More)
CD8 T cells are essential for control of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Once activated they undergo differentiation into short-lived effector and memory precursor effector cells. As effector cells, CD8 T cells exert immune pressure on the parasite via production of inflammatory cytokines and through their cytolytic activity. Once immune control has been(More)
CD8 exhaustion mediated by an inhibitory programmed death-1-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway occurs in several chronic infections, including toxoplasmosis. Although blockade of the programmed death-1-PD-L1 pathway revives this response, the role of costimulatory receptors involved in this rescue has not been ascertained in any model of CD8(More)
CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE)-susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4(More)
Protozoan parasites cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to chemotherapeutic agents is limited. Although parasites initially evoke a robust immune response, subsequent immunity fails to clear infection, ultimately leading to the chronic stage. This enigmatic situation was initially(More)
Although the highest numbers of studies linking an infectious agent with schizophrenia has involved the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the mechanistic underpinnings of this correlation has remained unaddressed. Incidentally, CD8 T cells, which play a pivotal role in mediating long-term immunity to Toxoplasma, are downregulated in schizophrenia patients. Recent(More)
CD8(+) T cells play an essential role in the protection against both acute as well as chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection. Although the role of IL-15 has been reported to be important for the development of long-term CD8(+) T cell immunity against the pathogen, the simultaneous roles played by both IL-15 and related gamma-chain family cytokine IL-7 in the(More)