Learn More
We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the embryonic development of an ascidian, a primitive chordate which shares features of both invertebrates and vertebrates, with a view to identifying genes involved in development and metamorphosis. We isolated 12 partial cDNA sequences which were expressed in a stage-specific manner using differential display.(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a phenomenon that occurs when excessive protein misfolding occurs during biosynthesis. ER stress triggers a series of signaling and transcriptional events known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to restore homeostasis in the ER but if unsuccessful can trigger apoptosis in the stressed cells and(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to luminal bacteria. Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 recognizes LPS and transduces a proinflammatory signal through the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88). We hypothesized that TLR4 participates in the innate immune response to luminal bacteria and the(More)
The etiology of human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is believed to involve inappropriate host responses to the complex commensal microbial flora in the gut, although an altered commensal flora is not completely excluded. A multifunctional cellular and secreted barrier separates the microbial flora from host tissues. Altered function of this barrier(More)
All chordates share several characteristic features including a dorsal hollow neural tube, a notochord, a pharynx and an endostyle. Unlike other chordate taxa, ascidians have a biphasic life-history with two distinct body plans. During metamorphosis, the larval nerve cord and notochord degenerate and the pharyngeal gill slits and endostyle form. While(More)
BACKGROUND MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel(More)
We recently characterized Winnie mice carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, leading to severe endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal goblet cells and spontaneous colitis. In this study, we characterized the immune responses due to this intestinal epithelial dysfunction. In Winnie, there was a fourfold increase in activated dendritic cells (DCs; CD11c(+)(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin peptides may act locally as cytokines in several organ systems with elevated mucosal levels present in Crohn's disease. A variant in the angiotensinogen gene promoter results in increased peptide production, while transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) codon 25 variants demonstrate variable peptide production, predisposing to(More)
Chemokines and their cognate receptors have been identified as major factors initiating and governing cell movement and interaction. These ligands and their receptors are expressed on a wide variety of cells and act during steady-state migration as well as inflammatory recruitment. CCR6 is a non-promiscuous chemokine receptor that has only one known(More)
Data from animal models and human inflammatory bowel diseases have implicated the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress pathway in intestinal inflammation. We have characterized the development of inflammation in Winnie mice in which ER stress arises due to a single missense mutation in the MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells. This model has allowed(More)