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We recently characterized Winnie mice carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, leading to severe endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal goblet cells and spontaneous colitis. In this study, we characterized the immune responses due to this intestinal epithelial dysfunction. In Winnie, there was a fourfold increase in activated dendritic cells (DCs; CD11c(+)(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid(More)
BACKGROUND MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to luminal bacteria. Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 recognizes LPS and transduces a proinflammatory signal through the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88). We hypothesized that TLR4 participates in the innate immune response to luminal bacteria and the(More)
The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nerve fibers as well as by intrinsic fibers from the neurons in myenteric and submucosal ganglia embedded into the gastrointestinal wall. Morphological and functional studies of intestinal innervation in animal models are important for understanding the(More)
All chordates share several characteristic features including a dorsal hollow neural tube, a notochord, a pharynx and an endostyle. Unlike other chordate taxa, ascidians have a biphasic life-history with two distinct body plans. During metamorphosis, the larval nerve cord and notochord degenerate and the pharyngeal gill slits and endostyle form. While(More)
Chemokines and their cognate receptors have been identified as major factors initiating and governing cell movement and interaction. These ligands and their receptors are expressed on a wide variety of cells and act during steady-state migration as well as inflammatory recruitment. CCR6 is a non-promiscuous chemokine receptor that has only one known(More)
One of the most significant challenges of cell biology is to understand how each type of cell copes with its specific workload without suffering damage. Among the most intriguing questions concerns intestinal epithelial cells in mammals; these cells act as a barrier between the internally protected region and the external environment that is exposed(More)
PURPOSE Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known modifiable risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and it can be caused by reduced aqueous humor outflow from the anterior chamber. Outflow is predominantly regulated by the trabecular meshwork, consisting of specialized cells within a complex extracellular matrix (ECM). An imbalance(More)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex(More)