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INTRODUCTION The male gonadal arteries, namely the testicular arteries, may vary at their origin and arise from the renal artery, suprarenal artery or lumbar artery. They may also be doubled, tripled or even quadrupled and may arise as a common trunk. With the advent of new intra-abdominal operative and laparoscopic techniques, the anatomy of the gonadal(More)
Posterior cerebral artery, terminal branch of basilar artery joins the posterior communicating artery to help complete the circulus arteriosus cerebri in human beings. A study of 89 formalin-fixed brain specimen of either sex and of Indian origin has showed that the mean length and diameter of the posterior cerebral artery was 6.75 +/- 1.482 mm and 1.7 +/-(More)
INTRODUCTION The organogenesis of the thyroid gland in humans is often disturbed, leading to a variety of morphological variations of the gland, such as hypoplasia, ectopy, hemiagenesis and agenesis. As the morphological variations are usually diagnosed incidentally during examination for other thyroid gland diseases, the true incidence is therefore(More)
The extensor digitorum brevis manus, a supernumerary muscle in the fourth extensor compartment of the dorsum of the wrist, is a relatively rare anomalous muscle. Extensor digitorum brevis should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses on the dorsal aspect of the hand as it may mimic cystic, neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious(More)
The infratemporal fossa is one of the most difficult regions of skull base to access surgically. The presence of the ossified pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments makes it more critical and difficult to access, with an occasional entrapment of structures like the mandibular nerve (MN) and its branches. During a routine dissection of an adult male(More)
Variations in the branching pattern of the external carotid artery (ECA) are well known and documented. The variation in the present case was compared with those reported before. An anomalous unilateral variation in the branching pattern of the left ECA was observed in a male embalmed cadaver. In this case, the ECA gives a direct branch directly to the(More)
CONTEXT It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. AIMS To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. SETTINGS AND(More)
Supernumerary heads or slips of brachialis (anticus) muscle is one among the most striking variations, described and encountered in the dissection routine. Very few studies are quoted in the list of its anomalies. We present a unique occurrence of an accessory brachialis muscle (acBr) that formed a fibro-muscular tunnel after blending with the medial(More)
OBJECTIVE The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS The skin,(More)
INTRODUCTION Methotrexate, a folate antagonist, is a mainstay treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is also widely used in a low dose formulation to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In rats, methotrexate is known to induce micronuclei formation, leading to genetic damage, while vitamin A is known to protect against such(More)