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Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity constitutes the primary plant immune response that has evolved to recognize invariant structures of microbial surfaces. Here we show that Gram-positive bacteria-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) constitutes a novel PAMP of immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment with PGN from(More)
The major autolysin of Staphylococcus aureus (AtlA) and of Staphylococcus epidermidis (AtlE) are well-studied enzymes. Here we created an atlA deletion mutant in S. aureus that formed large cell clusters and was biofilm-negative. In electron micrographs, the mutant cells were distinguished by rough outer cell surface. The mutant could be complemented using(More)
Many Gram-positive bacteria produce lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers whose physiological roles have remained a matter of debate because of the lack of LTA-deficient mutants. The ypfP gene responsible for biosynthesis of a glycolipid found in LTA was deleted in Staphylococcus aureus SA113, causing 87% reduction of the LTA content. Mass spectrometry and(More)
Previously it has been demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus is sensitive toward Pseudomonas-secreted exotoxins, which preferentially target the electron transport chain in staphylococci. Here it is shown that a subpopulation of S. aureus survives these respiratory toxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by selection of the small-colony variant (SCV) phenotype.(More)
Sequelae of sepsis include anemia which presumably results from accelerated clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood. The underlying mechanisms, however, remained hitherto elusive. Most recent studies disclosed that increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ceramide both trigger suicidal erythrocyte death (i.e., eryptosis), which is characterized by(More)
Staphylococcal cell separation depends largely on the bifunctional autolysin Atl that is processed to amidase-R(1,2) and R(3)-glucosaminidase. These murein hydrolases are targeted via repeat domains (R) to the septal region of the cell surface, thereby allowing localized peptidoglycan hydrolysis and separation of the dividing cells. Here we show that(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens and frequently coinfect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa secretes an arsenal of small respiratory inhibitors, like pyocyanin, hydrogen cyanide, or quinoline N-oxides, that may act against the commensal flora as well as host cells. Here, we show that with respect(More)
In Staphylococcus, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is present only in some species and is composed of TatA and TatC. The tatAC operon is associated with the fepABC operon, which encodes homologs to an iron-binding lipoprotein, an iron-dependent peroxidase (FepB), and a high-affinity iron permease. The FepB protein has a typical twin-arginine(More)
The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by(More)
Human-pathogenic bacteria that are able to cause persistent infections must have developed mechanisms to resist the immune defense system. Lysozyme, a cell wall-lytic enzyme, is one of the first defense compounds induced in serum and tissues after the onset of infection. Recently, we showed that Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to lysozyme by O(More)