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The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 (refs. 1-5) can bind to cells lacking the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) when it forms a complex with the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) (trans signaling). Here, we have assessed the contribution of this system to the increased resistance of mucosal T cells against apoptosis in Crohn disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory(More)
Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease. However, their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In the present study, we have identified a unique and unexpected role for azathioprine and its metabolites(More)
Apart from genetic and environmental factors, the mucosal immune system of the gut plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the healthy gut, the mucosal immune system ensures the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and thereby allows an effective defence against luminal pathogens but at the same time(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which consists of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is defined as a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of IBD are still not completely understood, and the therapeutic strategies used thus far have been limited to mostly evidence-based(More)
As antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suppress immune responses in Crohn's disease by binding to membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we created a fluorescent antibody for molecular mTNF imaging in this disease. Topical antibody administration in 25 patients with Crohn's disease led to detection of intestinal mTNF(+) immune cells during confocal laser(More)
The molecular checkpoints that drive inflammatory bowel diseases are incompletely understood. Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis. In an animal model, citrine reporter mice had more IL-9-expressing mucosal T cells in experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. IL-9(More)
BACKGROUND Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows microscopic imaging within the mucosal layer of the gut during ongoing endoscopy. Different studies have addressed the potential of CLE for in vivo diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis. However, there are no data on the utility of CLE for in vivo diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD). The(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most dreaded causes of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Main objective was to investigate whether confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has the capability for in vivo diagnosis of C. difficile associated histological changes. Second objective was to prove the presence of intramucosal bacteria using(More)
OBJECTIVE Several pathogenic roles attributed over the past two decades to either T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells are increasingly becoming associated with interleukin (IL)-17 and most recently IL-9 signalling. However, the implication of IL-9 in IBD has not been addressed so far. DESIGN We investigated the expression of IL-9 and IL-9R by using peripheral(More)