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The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 (refs. 1-5) can bind to cells lacking the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) when it forms a complex with the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) (trans signaling). Here, we have assessed the contribution of this system to the increased resistance of mucosal T cells against apoptosis in Crohn disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which consists of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is defined as a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of IBD are still not completely understood, and the therapeutic strategies used thus far have been limited to mostly evidence-based(More)
Signal transduction in response to interleukin-6 (IL-6) requires binding of the cytokine to its receptor (IL-6R) and subsequent homodimerization of the signal transducer gp130. The complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) triggers dimerization of gp130 and induces responses on cells that do not express membrane bound IL-6R. Naturally occurring soluble(More)
Apart from genetic and environmental factors, the mucosal immune system of the gut plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the healthy gut, the mucosal immune system ensures the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and thereby allows an effective defence against luminal pathogens but at the same time(More)
Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease. However, their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In the present study, we have identified a unique and unexpected role for azathioprine and its metabolites(More)
Although the precise etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still remains unclear, considerable progress has been made in the identification of cytokine-mediated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Recent data have clearly shown that these pathways induce augmented intestinal T-cell activation and thus resistance to apoptosis,(More)
The molecular checkpoints that drive inflammatory bowel diseases are incompletely understood. Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis. In an animal model, citrine reporter mice had more IL-9-expressing mucosal T cells in experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. IL-9(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have proven clinical efficacy in Crohn's disease. Here, we assessed the effects of anti-TNF antibodies on apoptosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS CD14(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood and(More)
Recent studies in transgenic mice have revealed that expression of a dominant negative form of the transcription factor GATA-3 in T cells can prevent T helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic airway inflammation in mice. However, it remains unclear whether GATA-3 plays a role in the effector phase of allergic airway inflammation and whether antagonizing(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 seems to have an important role in the intestinal inflammation that characterizes inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-6 production in IBD. Here, we assessed the role of the transcriptional regulator IFN(More)