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Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease. However, their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In the present study, we have identified a unique and unexpected role for azathioprine and its metabolites(More)
NFAT transcription factors control T-cell activation and function. Specifically, the transcription factor NFATc2 affects the regulation of cell differentiation and growth and plays a critical role in the development of colonic inflammation. Here, we used an experimental model of colitis-associated colorectal carcinoma to investigate the contribution of(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most dreaded causes of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Main objective was to investigate whether confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has the capability for in vivo diagnosis of C. difficile associated histological changes. Second objective was to prove the presence of intramucosal bacteria using(More)
Recent studies in transgenic mice have revealed that expression of a dominant negative form of the transcription factor GATA-3 in T cells can prevent T helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic airway inflammation in mice. However, it remains unclear whether GATA-3 plays a role in the effector phase of allergic airway inflammation and whether antagonizing(More)
Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. We found that, unlike sporadic colorectal cancer and control patients, patients with CAC show activated VEGFR2 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs).(More)
Since its discovery in 1986, originally as B cell stimulating factor 2, the knowledge on IL-6 for immune homeostasis and its pathophysiological implications has rapidly increased. It is now clear that IL-6, alone or in combination with other cytokines, is an architect for shaping and generating immune responses which exerts profound activities on the(More)
Uncontrolled activation of mucosal effector cells has been identified as the main pathogenic mechanism involved in the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The sustained activation of these cells leads to the aberrant production of various pro-inflammatory mediators, which co-ordinated action amplifies(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopy is an essential diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the clinical care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Endoscopic therapy can be used for treatment of disease-related strictures, surveillance and resection of intraepithelial neoplasia, and treatment of fistulas or disease-related complications, and is currently being(More)
Endoscopy in IBD has tremendous importance to diagnose inflammatory activity, to evaluate therapeutic success and for the surveillance of colitis associated cancer. Thus it becomes obvious that there is a need for new and more advanced endoscopic imaging techniques for better characterization of mucosal inflammation and early neoplasia detection in IBD.(More)
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies are successfully used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of action of these agents is still a matter of debate. Apart from neutralization of TNF, influence on the intestinal barrier function, induction of apoptosis in mucosal immune cells, formation of regulatory(More)