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The steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine produces cyclopia and holoprosencephaly when administered to gastrulation-stage amniote embryos. Cyclopamine-induced malformations in chick embryos are associated with interruption of Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-mediated dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube and somites. Cell types normally induced in the ventral neural tube(More)
Phox2a is a vertebrate homeodomain protein expressed in subsets of differentiating neurons. Here, we show that it is essential for proper development of the locus coeruleus, a subset of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and the VIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial sensory ganglia. In the sensory ganglia, we have identified two differentiation blocks in(More)
  • Raj P. Kapur
  • Pediatric and developmental pathology : the…
  • 1999
Intestinal aganglionosis results from homologous genetic defects in humans and mice, including mutations of Sox10, which encodes a transcription factor expressed in neural crest cells. To gain insight into the embryological basis for this condition, the phenotype and pathogenesis of intestinal aganglionosis in Sox10(Dom)/Sox10(Dom) embryos were studied. The(More)
Recent gene targeting studies have revealed unexpected roles for endothelins in the development of neural crest-derived tissues. Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) catalyzes the proteolytic activation of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(ET-1) in vitro. However, the importance of ECE-1 cleavage in the multiple endothelin pathways in vivo is unknown. Here(More)
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine, the principal classic neurotransmitter of peripheral sympathetic neurons. We have shown that 5.8 kb of 5' upstream region from a cloned human DBH gene promoter is sufficient to direct expression of the E. coli lacZ gene in transgenic mice to neurons of the locus(More)
To study effects of mitochondrial complex I (CI, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency, we inactivated the Ndufs4 gene, which encodes an 18 kDa subunit of the 45-protein CI complex. Although small, Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice appeared healthy until approximately 5 weeks of age, when ataxic signs began, progressing to death at approximately 7 weeks. KO(More)
Enteric ganglia in the hindgut are derived from separate vagal and sacral neural crest populations. Two conflicting models, based primarily on avian data, have been proposed to describe the contribution of sacral neural crest cells. One hypothesizes early colonization of the hindgut shortly after neurulation, and the other states that sacral crest cells(More)
The dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter has been shown to direct expression of the reporter gene product, beta-galactosidase, to enteric neurons and putative embryonic neuroblasts in transgenic mice (Mercer et al., 1991; Kapur et al., 1991). In this paper, expression of the transgene, D beta H-nlacZ, in the gastrointestinal tract is characterized in more(More)
BACKGROUND Osteopetrosis, a genetic disease characterised by osteoclast failure, is classified into three forms: infantile malignant autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (IRO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO). METHODS We studied 49 patients, 21 with ARO, one with IRO, and 27 with type II ADO(More)
From the Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine (V.L.S.), and the Departments of Pathology (D.M.), Obstetrics and Gynecology (T.R.E., L.E.S.), and Pediatrics and Medicine (Medical Genetics) (I.A.G.), University of Washington, Seattle; the Department of Laboratories, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle (R.P.K., K.E.O.); the(More)