Raj Khandwalla

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Dosing equivalency of carvedilol and metoprolol remains a debate. Degree of beta 1-blockade is best assessed by blunting of the exercise-induced heart rate. Accordingly, the authors have investigated dosing equivalency by examining baseline and peak exercise heart rates and norepinephrine levels in subjects with chronic heart failure treated with carvedilol(More)
BACKGROUND Central venous pressure (CVP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) are important parameters in the complete hemodynamic assessment of a patient. Sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter is a non-invasive method of estimating these parameters, but there are limited data summarizing its diagnostic accuracy across multiple(More)
Estimation of volume status is integral to heart failure (HF) management. Measurement of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter (IVCd) by ultrasound provides a noninvasive estimate of right atrial pressures. The GE Vscan is a handheld ultrasound (HHU) device that allows for point-of-care measurements to assess volume status. We hypothesize that IVCd measurements(More)
BACKGROUND Improving the management of patients with complex chronic disease is a substantial undertaking with the simultaneous goals of improving patient outcomes and controlling costs. Reducing avoidable hospitalization for such patients is a step toward both objectives. Some of the deterioration experienced in chronic disease patients occurs outside the(More)
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