Raj Gopal Raghupathy

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Several years ago, the rather provocative question was raised: is successful pregnancy a T helper 2 (Th2) phenomenon? Implicit in this argument is the corollary that unsuccessful pregnancy is a Th1-type situation. Here, evidence from murine and human pregnancy is presented to show that, since Th1-type cytokines mediate pregnancy loss, a shift towards(More)
Dengue virus causes dengue fever, a mild febrile illness, and at times dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a severe illness the pathogenesis of which is not fully understood. Given the crucial roles played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a chemoattractant cytokine and in inflammatory processes, levels of circulating IL-8 in the sera and IL-8 mRNA in the peripheral(More)
Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy, but the etiology of a significant proportion of abortions is still unknown. We have examined the production of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines by women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) since it appears that successful murine pregnancy occurs in a Th2-dominant situation and(More)
CBA x DBA/2 placentae are quantitatively or qualitatively deficient in their production of the anti-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 compared with the nonresorption-prone CBA x BALB/c mating combination. Wastage in this mating combination is accompanied by increased levels of local inflammatory cytokines. In addition, alloimmunization enhances(More)
BACKGROUND This study compared Th1-Th2 cytokine profiles in a subgroup of recurrent aborters who had an abortion with those in a subgroup of recurrent aborters who had a successful pregnancy. METHODS Fifty-four women with a history of at least three normal pregnancies, 24 women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) followed by abortion(More)
It has been proposed that successful pregnancy is a T helper 2-type phenomenon, and that T helper (Th)1-type reactivity is deleterious to pregnancy. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women undergoing unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) with(More)
Preeclampsia (PE) is an important, common, and dangerous complication of pregnancy; it causes maternal and perinatal illness and is responsible for a high proportion of maternal and infant deaths. PE is associated with increased blood pressure and proteinuria, with a whole host of other potentially serious complications in the mother and fetus. The maternal(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare two types of cytokines, type 1, which activate cell-mediated reactions and are important in cytotoxic and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and type 2, which encourage vigorous antibody production and are commonly found in association with humoral immune responses, in blood of women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM). (More)
Spontaneous miscarriage and preterm delivery are common complications of pregnancy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) and preterm delivery (PTD) and these have led to exploration of ways to downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or to upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokines.(More)
Concentrations of the T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha, TNF-beta and interferon-gamma, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 as well as those of soluble CD30 in sera have been examined during the three trimesters of gestation, at delivery in normal pregnancy, and at the time of spontaneous abortion in women(More)