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The behavioral effects induced by methamphetamine (5.0 mg/kg) were compared in the mutant mice lacking d-amino acid oxidase activity and normal mice. The mutant mice exhibited marked decline in the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy compared to the normal mice, whereas the mutant mice displayed a drastic augmentation in the locomotor activity evoked by(More)
From November 2009 to December 2013 in the Philippines, 15 influenza C viruses were isolated, using MDCK cells, from specimens obtained from children with severe pneumonia and influenza-like illness (ILI). This is the first report of influenza C virus isolation in the Philippines. In addition, from January 2008 to December 2013, 7 influenza C viruses were(More)
Enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a rare enterovirus associated with respiratory illness that, unlike other enteroviruses, has been identified only from respiratory specimens. We identified EV68 from respiratory specimens of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia in Leyte, Republic of the Philippines. Twenty-one samples showed high similarity(More)
UNLABELLED Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood. METHODS Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain(More)
Anxiety is one of the common features of withdrawal syndrome caused by abuse-inducing drugs such as methamphetamine (MAP). The neural pathways associated with anxiety are established within the network sustained by diencephalon, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), a peptide consisting of 87 amino acids, serves as(More)
D-serine is an endogenous and obligatory coagonist for the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the mammalian brain. D-serine is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase; immunohistochemical studies have long been believed to indicate that serine racemase and D-serine occur predominantly in astrocytes. However, we have recently(More)
Human rhinovirus (HRV) C was recently identified as the third species of HRV using a molecular technique. Infections caused by previously identified HRVs (A and B) are thought to be limited to the respiratory tract; however, pathogenesis of HRVC is still largely unknown. A total of 816 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with severe respiratory(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia remains a leading cause of child death in developing countries. The viruses in severe pneumonia remain poorly defined. METHODS The study was conducted at the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center in Tacloban City, Philippines from May 2008 to May 2009. Patients aged 8 days to 13 years old who were admitted to the Department of(More)
This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined(More)