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Infection rate among intravenous drug users (IDU) is higher than the general public, and is the major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in the IDU population. Epidemiologic studies provide data on increased prevalence of opportunistic bacterial infections such as TB and pneumonia, and viral infections such as HIV-1 and hepatitis in the IDU population.(More)
Despite intensive research studies, theories have yet to focus on the contribution of hypoxia to patency differences observed clinically between arterial vs. venous grafts. This study investigates the differential hypoxic response of smooth muscle cells (SMC) to hypoxia-derived endothelial cell (EC) growth factors. Initiation of SMC proliferation under(More)
Chronic drug users account for a third of all cases of AIDS in the United States and the progression to AIDS dementia is accelerated in opiate drug abusers. Clinically, microglial activation better correlates with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) than productive HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Moreover, pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common(More)
Drug abuse and HIV infection are interlinked. From the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the impact of illicit drug use on HIV disease progression has been a focus of many investigations. Both laboratory-based and epidemiological studies strongly indicate that drug abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression and increase mortality and morbidity in these(More)
Opioids are known to exacerbate HIV pathogenesis, however current studies have been limited by models of HIV infection. Given that HIV causes many systemic effects via direct infection of host cells as well as indirect bystander effects, it is important to establish a systemic infection model in a small animal so that genetic tools can be utilized to(More)
Persistent systemic infection results in excessive trafficking of peripheral immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS), thereby contributing to sustained neuroinflammation that leads to neurocognitive deficits. In this study, we explored the role of opportunistic systemic infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the recruitment of peripheral(More)
BACKGROUND Opioids such as morphine are widely used for the management of pain associated with acute pancreatitis. Interestingly, opioids are also known to affect the immune system and modulate inflammatory pathways in non-pancreatic diseases. However, the impact of morphine on the progression of acute pancreatitis has never been evaluated. In the current(More)
These errors have now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included(More)
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